1 BACKUPInvokes the Backup utility (BACKUP) to perform the following BACKUP operations: o Make copies of disk files. o Save disk files to a BACKUP save set. o Restore files from a BACKUP save set to disk. o Compare disk files with other disk files or files in a BACKUP save set. o List information about the files in a BACKUP save set. o Create and list BACKUP journal files. The two ways to back up your system disk are: o If you have access to the CD-ROM for the current version of OpenVMS Alpha or VAX, you can use the menu system supplied on the CD-ROM to back up your system disk. o If you do not have access to the CD-ROM for the current version of OpenVMS VAX, you must use standalone BACKUP to back up your system disk (VAX only). Standalone BACKUP is a form of the Backup utility (VAX only) that you boot into main memory (instead of executing under the control of the operating system). For more information about BACKUP and standalone BACKUP tasks see the OpenVMS System Manager's Manual. For more information about the BACKUP command and its qualifiers, see the OpenVMS System Management Utilities Reference Manual. Format: BACKUP input-specifier output-specifier 2 Parameters input-specifier Specifies the input for the BACKUP operation as either a file specification, a BACKUP save-set specification, or a device name. If the input specifier is a save-set specification on disk, you must include the input save-set qualifier /SAVE_SET. You can specify DECnet node names in save-set specifications only. You can use wildcards characters in file specifications, and in save-set specifications if they are on magnetic tape. output-specifier Specifies the output for the BACKUP operation. The output specifier, like the input specifier, can be either a file specification, a BACKUP save-set specification, or a device name. If the output specifier is a save-set specification on disk, you must include the output save-set qualifier /SAVE_SET. You can specify DECnet node names in save-set specifications only. You can use wildcard characters when the output specifier is a Files-11 volume, but not when the output specifier is a BACKUP save-set specifier or a volume created by a BACKUP /PHYSICAL or BACKUP/IMAGE operation. 2 Qualifiers /ALIAS /ALIAS save-set-spec (default) /NOALIAS Command Qualifier Specifies that the previous behavior of multiple processing of alias and primary file entries be maintained. The /ALIAS qualifier maintains the previous BACKUP behavior of treating alias file entries the same as primary file entries. Therefore, a primary file may be processed multiple times by BACKUP if one or more alias file entries reference the same primary file entry. If you specify /NOALIAS, alias directory and file entries are ignored. Therefore, multiple processing of primary files may be avoided, which saves time and save set file space. If a restore operation is performed using the /ALIAS qualifier but the save set was created by using the /NOALIAS qualifier, a message is displayed that the /ALIAS qualifier will be ignored. /ASSIST /ASSIST (default) /NOASSIST Command Qualifier Allows operator or user intervention during a BACKUP operation if a magnetic tape mount request fails or if an operation requires another volume. The /ASSIST qualifier causes BACKUP to send messages to operator terminals when a failure occurs during a BACKUP mount request or when an operation requires another volume. If you specify /NOASSIST, mount messages appear on your terminal and are not sent to the operator. The /NOASSIST qualifier has no effect if the logical name SYS$COMMAND points to a device that is not a terminal (as is the case when you run BACKUP in a batch job). /BACKUP Input File-Selection Qualifier Selects files according to the BACKUP date written in the file header record by the BACKUP/RECORD command. Use this qualifier with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier, either of which provides the system time value BACKUP uses to determine whether to process a file. Use the /BACKUP file-selection qualifier only with Files-11 Structure Level 2 volumes. You cannot use /BACKUP with the /CREATED, /MODIFIED, or /EXPIRED qualifiers in an image operation or in a physical operation. /BEFORE /BEFORE=time Input File-Selection Qualifier Selects files dated earlier than the date and time you specify. Specify the date and time as a delta time or as an absolute time using the format [dd-mmm-yyyy[:]][hh:mm:ss.cc]. You can also use one of the following reserved words to specify the date and time: BACKUP The BACKUP date of the file written by a previous BACKUP/RECORD operation (available only on Files-11 Structure Level 2 volumes) TODAY The current day, month, and year at 00:00:00.0 o'clock TOMORROW 24 hours after midnight last night YESTERDAY 24 hours before midnight last night /BLOCK_SIZE /BLOCK_SIZE=n Output Save-Set Qualifier Specifies the output block size in bytes for data records in a BACKUP save set. You can specify a block size between 2048 and 65,535 bytes. BACKUP may adjust this value according to the constraints of the BACKUP format. The default block size for magnetic tape is 8192 bytes; the default for disk is 32,256 bytes. /BRIEF Command Qualifier Causes the /LIST qualifier to display the file specification, size (in blocks), and creation date for each file in the save set. The /BRIEF qualifier is valid only with the /LIST qualifier and is the default format for BACKUP listings. /BUFFER_COUNT /BUFFER_COUNT=n Command Qualifier This qualifier is obsolete. You can still specify the /BUFFER_ COUNT qualifier, although it has no effect. (This ensures that command procedures containing this qualifier will still operate correctly.) Digital recommends that you remove the /BUFFER_COUNT qualifier from command procedures. /BY_OWNER /BY_OWNER[=[uic]] /BY_OWNER[=option] Input or output file qualifier, or output save-set qualifier As an input file-selection qualifier, /BY_OWNER causes BACKUP to process files owned by the specified UIC. Specify the UIC as octal numbers or in alphanumeric format (in the form [g,m]). Note that the UIC specification must include the brackets. UIC formats are described in the OpenVMS User's Manual. If you specify this qualifier without a UIC, the default UIC is the current process UIC. If you do not specify this qualifier, BACKUP processes all files on the volume. As an output file qualifier, /BY_OWNER redefines the owner UIC for each file restored during the operation. You can use one of the following options: DEFAULT Sets the owner UIC to the user's current default UIC. This option is the default if you do not specify the /BY_OWNER qualifier, except in image and incremental restore operations, when ORIGINAL is the default option. ORIGINAL Retains the owner UIC of the file being restored. This option is the default if you specify the /BY_ OWNER qualifier with no option. This option is also the default for incremental restore operations. To use this option, the UIC must be yours, or you must have the SYSPRV user privilege or be the owner of the output volume. PARENT Sets the owner UIC to the owner UIC of the directory to which the file is being restored or copied. To use this option, the parent UIC must be yours, or you must have the SYSPRV user privilege or be the owner of the output volume. [uic] Sets the owner UIC to the UIC specified. To use this option, the UIC must be yours, or you must have the SYSPRV user privilege or be the owner of the output volume. As an output save-set qualifier, /BY_OWNER specifies the owner UIC of the save set. If you omit the /BY_OWNER qualifier, the save set recieves the UIC of the current process. To use /BY_ OWNER as an output save-set qualifier, you must have the SYSPRV user privilege or the UIC must be your own. /COMMENT /COMMENT=string Output Save-Set Qualifier Places the string that you supply into the BACKUP summary record of the output save set. Enclose the string in quotation marks ("a string") if it contains a space or nonalphanumeric characters. A DCL command can contain a maximum of 1024 characters. /COMPARE Command Qualifier Causes BACKUP to compare the contents of the first parameter with the contents of the second parameter. The first parameter can be a Files-11 file, a wildcard character representing a group of files, a BACKUP save set, or a disk device. The second parameter must be a Files-11 disk file or files, or a Files-11 disk device. Unless you also specify the /PHYSICAL qualifier, the disk volume must be a Files-11 volume. If a file does not compare successfully, BACKUP displays an error message. /CONFIRM Input File-Selection Qualifier Displays prompts on your terminal for confirmation before processing each file. If you want the file to be processed, enter Y or YES and press Return. /CRC /CRC (default) /NOCRC Input or output save-set qualifier As an input save-set qualifier, /CRC causes the software cyclic redundancy check (CRC) encoded in the save set's data blocks to be checked (/CRC) or ignored (/NOCRC). If you ignore the CRC encoding, you reduce processing time at the risk of increasing data error. As an output save-set qualifier, /CRC specifies that software CRC checking code is to be computed and stored in the data blocks of the output save set. To disable CRC checking, use the /NOCRC qualifier. /CREATED Input File-Selection Qualifier Selects files according to the value of the creation date field in each file header record. Use this qualifier with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier, either of which provides the system time value BACKUP uses to determine whether to process a file. /DELETE Command Qualifier Specifies that a BACKUP save or copy operation is to delete the selected input files from the input volume after all files have been successfully processed. Sufficient user privilege is required to delete files. If used with the /VERIFY qualifier, files that fail verification are not deleted. /DENSITY /DENSITY=N Output Save-Set Qualifier Specifies the recording density of the output magnetic tape in bits per inch (bits/in). Use a value that is supported by the magnetic tape drive. If you do not specify the /DENSITY qualifier, the default density is the current density of the magnetic tape drive. You must specify the output save-set qualifier /REWIND with /DENSITY. /EXACT_ORDER Output Save-Set Qualifier Depending on the other qualifiers you specify on the command line, the /EXACT_ORDER qualifier allows you to do the following: o Specify the exact order of tape volume labels that you want to use in a BACKUP operation. You must use the /LABEL=(label1,label2,...) qualifier to specify the order of the labels. BACKUP continues the operation as long as the label of the tape in the drive matches the corresponding label on the command line. If you do not specify enough labels on the command line to complete the operation, BACKUP prompts you to enter a label for the tape in the drive. o Preserve the existing volume label on a tape. If you do not use the /LABEL qualifier on the command line and the tape has an ANSI label, BACKUP uses the existing label. o Prevent previous volumes of a multivolume save operation from being overwritten. BACKUP keeps track of the volume labels you have already used in the operation. If you accidently mount one of the previous volumes, BACKUP displays the following error message: %BACKUP-W-MOUNTERR, volume 1 on MKB100: was not mounted because its label does not match the one requested Volume with label TAPE1 was already used in this save operation specify option (QUIT or NEW tape) BACKUP> Note the following restrictions when you use the /EXACT_ORDER output qualifier: o If you use the /EXACT_ORDER qualifier, you cannot specify a label longer than six characters on the command line. If you specify a label longer than six characters, BACKUP displays the following error message: %BACKUP-F-INVQUAVAL, value 'label_name' invalid for /LABEL qualifier o You cannot use the /IGNORE=LABEL_PROCESSING qualifier with the /EXACT_ORDER qualifier. o You cannot use /REWIND as an output qualifier with the /EXACT_ ORDER qualifier. o If you use the /LABEL qualifier with the /EXACT_ORDER qualifier, you cannot specify duplicate labels. /EXCLUDE /EXCLUDE=(file-spec[,...]) Input File-Selection Qualifier Excludes files that otherwise meet the selection criteria for a save or copy operation. If you specify more than one file, separate the file specifications with commas and enclose the list in parentheses. Do not use a device specification when defining the files to be excluded. You can use most standard wildcard characters, but you cannot use wildcard characters denoting latest versions of files (;) or relative versions of files (;-n). If you specify directory files (files with the file type .DIR), your command is processed but the directory files are not excluded (they are processed). You cannot use the /EXCLUDE qualifier in image restore operations. /EXPIRED Input File-Selection Qualifier Selects files according to the value of the expiration date field in each file header record. Use this qualifier with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier, either of which provides the system time value BACKUP uses to determine whether to process a file. /FAST Command Qualifier Processes an input Files-11 disk using a fast file scan. The fast file scan reads the index file on the Files-11 disk specified by the input specifier and creates a table of files that match the qualifiers you specified. A fast file scan is most useful when the input specifier includes most files on the volume and file-selection qualifiers (such as those that pertain to date or owner) specify a relatively small set of the files named. To perform a fast file scan, you need write access to the INDEXF.SYS file on the input medium or the input medium must be write-locked. /FULL Command Qualifier Displays the information produced by the /LIST command qualifier in a format similar to that displayed by the DCL command DIRECTORY/FULL. If you do not specify /FULL, the /LIST qualifier displays a brief summary of the information (/BRIEF). You must specify the /LIST qualifier with the /FULL qualifier. /GROUP_SIZE /GROUP_SIZE=n Output Save-Set Qualifier Defines the number of blocks BACKUP places in each redundancy group. The value of n must be 0 to 100. If you define a value of 0 for /GROUP_SIZE, no redundancy groups are created for the save set. /GROUP_SIZE=10 is the default value. /IGNORE /IGNORE=option Command Qualifier Specifies that a BACKUP save or copy operation will override restrictions placed on files or will not perform tape label processing checks. The /IGNORE=option qualifier has four options: ACCESSIBILITY Processes files on a tape that is protected by a volume accessibility character, or on a tape created by HSC Backup. The option applies only to tapes. It affects the first tape mounted and all subsequent tapes in the save set. INTERLOCK Processes files that otherwise could not be processed due to file access conflicts. Use this option to save or copy files currently open for writing. You must have the user privilege SYSPRV, a system UIC, or ownership of the volume to use this option. LABEL_ Saves or copies the contents of files to the PROCESSING specified magnetic tape volume regardless of the information contained in the volume header record. BACKUP does not verify the volume label or expiration date before writing information to the tape volume. Note that you cannot use this option with the /EXACT_ORDER qualifier. NOBACKUP Saves or copies both the file header record and the contents of files marked with the NOBACKUP flag by the /NOBACKUP qualifier of the DCL command SET FILE. If you do not specify this option, BACKUP saves only the file header record of files marked with the NOBACKUP flag. /IMAGE Command Qualifier Directs BACKUP to process an entire volume or volume set. Using this qualifier produces a functionally equivalent copy of the original volume or volume set. To use the /IMAGE command qualifier, you need write access to both the index file (INDEXF.SYS) and the bit map file (BITMAP.SYS), or the input medium must be write-locked. In save and copy operations, you cannot use input file-selection qualifiers with the /IMAGE command qualifier because BACKUP saves or copies all files on the input disk volumes. In restore and copy operations, every file is restored or copied. The output volume must be mounted using the /FOREIGN qualifier. The new volume is a functionally equivalent copy of the input volume; however, the file placement will change. An image restore or copy operation initializes the output volume or volume set. The initialization data comes from the save- volume summary record of the input volume, unless the command qualifier /NOINITIALIZE directs BACKUP to initialize the output volume using volume initialization data that already exists on the output volume. A BACKUP operation to mixed tape and disk save sets, as shown in the following command, is unsupported: $ BACKUP SYS$DISK:/IMAGE dka0:FUN,MKA0:/SAVE/REW /INCREMENTAL Command Qualifier Allows you to restore a disk volume from a series of incremental save sets. When processed correctly, the output disk volume will contain the same files it contained when the most recent incremental save operation was performed. BACKUP does not create files on the output disk volume that were deleted in the period in which the incremental backups were performed. The /INCREMENTAL qualifier is valid only in restore operations. You must specify a device as the output specifier; file specifications are invalid. When you specify the /INCREMENTAL qualifier, BACKUP restores files using the /BY_OWNER=ORIGINAL qualifier. /INITIALIZE /INITIALIZE /NOINITIALIZE Command Qualifier Initializes an output disk volume, making its entire previous contents unavailable. This qualifier is valid only when used with the /IMAGE qualifier during restore or copy operations or when saving files to a sequential-disk save set. The default is /INITIALIZE for Files-11 volumes and /NOINITIALIZE for sequential-disk volumes. /INTERCHANGE Command Qualifier Directs BACKUP to process files in a manner suitable for data interchange (software distribution) by excluding information that would prevent other utilities or sites from reading the BACKUP save set. The effects of the /INTERCHANGE qualifier are as follows: o Directories not selected as files are not copied. o Access control lists are not copied. o Block size on magnetic tape is limited to 8192 bytes. o Normal error recovery is used to write magnetic tapes so that no bad records exist on the resulting magnetic tape. /JOURNAL /JOURNAL[=file-spec] Command Qualifier Specifies that a BACKUP save operation is to create, or append information to, a BACKUP journal file. The BACKUP journal file contains an on-disk record of BACKUP save operations and saved files. To list the contents of a backup journal file, enter a BACKUP /JOURNAL/LIST command without an input or output specifier. /LABEL /LABEL=(string[,...]) Output Save-Set Qualifier Specifies the 1- to 6-character volume labels for the magnetic tapes to which the save set is written. If you do not specify the /LABEL qualifier, BACKUP uses the first six characters of the save-set name as the volume label of the first tape. If the save set continues to another tape, and you did not specify a volume label for the tape, BACKUP uses the first four characters of the previous tape's volume label followed by the volume number of the tape. For example, if the first tape in a save set is labeled AAAABB, the second tape in a sequence is labeled AAAA02, and the third tape is labeled AAAA03. You can specify the command qualifier /IGNORE=LABEL_PROCESSING to prevent BACKUP from verifying the volume label of the tape. You can also use the /EXACT_ORDER qualifier to specify the exact order of tape volume labels that you want to use in a BACKUP operation. /LIST /LIST[=file-spec] Command Qualifier Lists information about a BACKUP save set and about the files in a save set. You can display the list on your terminal or write it to a file. You can use this qualifier with any operation (save, restore, copy, compare, or journal). If specify /LIST by itself (not in conjunction with another operation), the input specifier must be a save set; you cannot specify an output specifier. You can use /LIST with either the /BRIEF or the /FULL command qualifiers. The default is /BRIEF. Do not use /LOG together with /LIST when the output for /LIST is directed to the terminal; you will receive confusing output. /LOG /LOG /NOLOG (default) Command Qualifier Determines whether the file specification of each file processed is displayed on SYS$OUTPUT during the operation. The default is /NOLOG. Displays at your terminal the file specification of each file processed during the BACKUP operation (/LOG) or suppresses the display (/NOLOG). The default is /NOLOG. Do not use /LOG together with /LIST when the output for /LIST is directed to the terminal; you will receive confusing output. /MEDIA_FORMAT /MEDIA_FORMAT=[NO]COMPACTION Output Save-Set Qualifier Controls whether data records are automatically compacted and blocked together. Data compaction and record blocking increase the amount of data that can be stored on a single tape cartridge. The compaction ratio depends on the data and the tape drive you use. For more information, see the documentation supplied with your tape drive. /MODIFIED Input File-Selection Qualifier Selects files according to the value of the modified date field (the date the file was last modified) in each file header record. Use this qualifier with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier, either of which provides the system time value BACKUP uses to determine whether to process a file. /NEW_VERSION Output File Qualifier Creates a new version of a file if a file with an identical specification already exists at the location to which the file is being restored or copied. The new file is created with the same name and type and a version number one higher than the highest existing version. By default, BACKUP does not restore a file with the same file name, file type, and version number as a file that already exists in a directory. Rather, BACKUP issues an error message and does not restore the file. The /OVERLAY and /REPLACE qualifiers also override this default, but produce different results than the /NEW_VERSION qualifier. Note that when copying or restoring files using the /NEW_VERSION qualifier, files are processed in decreasing version number order and are created in ascending order. The result is that the version numbers are inverted. Because this qualifier causes version numbers to change, do not use the /NEW_VERSION qualifier with the /COMPARE or /VERIFY qualifier. /OVERLAY Output File Qualifier Writes over an existing file when an identically-named file is encountered during the restore operation. If the identically- named files are not the same size, the file is extended (when the file being restored is larger) or retains its allocation (when the file being restored is smaller). By default, BACKUP does not restore a file with the same file name, file type, and version number as a file that already exists in a directory. Rather, BACKUP issues an error message and does not restore the file. The /NEW_VERSION and /REPLACE qualifiers also override this default, but produce different results than the /OVERLAY qualifier. /OWNER_UIC /OWNER_UIC[=[uic]] The /OWNER_UIC qualifier has been superseded by /BY_OWNER. Digital recommends that you substitute /BY_OWNER for /OWNER_ UIC in command procedures and operator instructions. See the description of /BY_OWNER for more information. /PHYSICAL Command Qualifier Specifies that the BACKUP ignore any file structure on the volume and to process the volume in terms of physical blocks. If you write a save set with the BACKUP/PHYSICAL command, you must also restore it with the BACKUP/PHYSICAL command. For physical copy operations between disks, the output disk must be the same type of device as the input disk. For physical save operations between disks, the output disk must be the same type of disk as the input disk or a larger-capacity disk. For physical restore operations between disks, the output disk must be the same type of device as the disk from which the save set was created. For all physical operations, the output disk must not have a bad block in any location that corresponds to a good block on the input disk. (This restriction does not apply to RA-series disks.) /PROTECTION /PROTECTION[=(code)] Output Save-Set Qualifier Defines the protection you want applied to a save set on a disk or to a magnetic tape volume. The code indicates the type of access (read, write, execute, and delete) available to the four categories of users (system, owner, group, and world). Protection information applies to all save sets stored on a tape. If you write the save set to either a Files-11 disk or a sequential disk without using the /PROTECTION qualifier, the default is the process default protection. To initialize a magnetic tape with the correct protection, specify the output save-set qualifier /REWIND with the /PROTECTION qualifier. If you do not specify /REWIND with /PROTECTION, the protection information, if any, in the volume header record is not changed. However, specifying /PROTECTION without /REWIND ensures that continuation volumes receive the correct protection. /RECORD Command Qualifier Records the current date and time in the BACKUP date field of each file header record once a file is successfully saved or copied. If you do not specify the /RECORD qualifier, BACKUP does not change the BACKUP date field of each processed file. Observe the following restrictions: o The /RECORD qualifier is valid only with Files-11 Structure Level 2 volumes. o To use the /RECORD qualifier you must either own the file or have SYSPRV privileges. o You cannot use the /RECORD qualifier with the /DELETE qualifier. o You can use the /RECORD qualifier in BACKUP save or copy operations only. /RELEASE_TAPE Command Qualifier Dismounts and unloads a tape after a BACKUP save operation writes a save set to the tape (and optionally verifies the saveset information on that tape). By using the /RELEASE_TAPE qualifier in conjunction with either the /DELETE or /RECORD qualifiers, you can make a tape drive available for other operations before the BACKUP command completes. The tape remains allocated until you enter the DEALLOCATE command. /REPLACE Output File Qualifier Replaces a file when an identically named file is encountered during a restore or copy operation. BACKUP deletes the existing version of the file and processes the new file with the same version number. By default, BACKUP does not process a file with the same file name, file type, and version number as a file that already exists in a directory. Rather, BACKUP issues an error message and does not restore the file. The /NEW_VERSION and /OVERLAY qualifiers also override this default, but produce different results than the /REPLACE qualifier. /REWIND /REWIND /NOREWIND (default) Input or Output Save-Set Qualifier As an input save-set qualifier, causes the input tape reel to be rewound (/REWIND) or not rewound (/NOREWIND) to beginning-of-tape (BOT) before BACKUP searches for the save-set name specified in the input specifier. As an output save-set qualifier, specifies that the output magnetic tape is to be rewound and initialized before the save operation begins (/REWIND) or that the tape is neither to be rewound nor initialized before the save operation begins ( /NOREWIND). Initializing the tape removes access to any existing data on the tape. If you want to start processing at BOT, and the magnetic tape is already positioned beyond BOT, specify /REWIND. Otherwise, the magnetic tape begins (or resumes) processing from the logical end-of-tape (EOT) marker. Use the /[NO]REWIND qualifier for magnetic tape save sets only. /SAVE_SET Input or Output Save-Set Qualifier Defines the input or output specifier as a BACKUP save set. Normally, BACKUP treats specifiers that refer to disk files as Files-11 files and specifiers that refer to tapes as BACKUP save sets. You must specify the /SAVE_SET qualifier when the input or output specifier is a BACKUP save set on a Files-11 disk. /SELECT /SELECT /SELECT=(file-spec[,...]) Input Save-Set Qualifier Selects the specified files for processing. If you specify more than one file, separate the file specifications with commas and enclose the list in parentheses. Do not use a device specification when you define the files to be selected. You can use most standard wildcard characters, but you cannot use wildcard characters denoting latest version of files (;) and relative versions of files (;-n). You cannot use the /SELECT qualifier in image save operations. /SINCE /SINCE=time Input File-Selection Qualifier Selects files dated equal to or later than the specified date and time. You can enter the time in either absolute time or delta time. Specify these time values according to the rules described in the OpenVMS User's Manual. You can also specify the time using one of the following options: BACKUP The BACKUP/RECORD operation (available only on Files- 11 Structure Level 2 volumes) TODAY The current day, month, and year at 00:00:00.0 o'clock TOMORROW 24 hours after midnight last night YESTERDAY 24 hours before midnight last night /TAPE_EXPIRATION /TAPE_EXPIRATION=dd-mmm-yyyy Output Save-Set Qualifier Writes a file expiration date other than the current date to the file header label of the save set. DIGITAL recommends that you specify an expiration date whenever you create a BACKUP save set on magnetic tape using /REWIND. Daily BACKUP tapes should expire in seven days, weekly BACKUP tapes should expire in one month, and monthly BACKUP tapes should expire in one year. Specify the date in absolute time format, according to the rules described the OpenVMS User's Manual. If you do not specify an expiration date, today's date is written to the volume header record when you perform a save operation using /REWIND. /TRUNCATE /TRUNCATE /NOTRUNCATE (default) Command Qualifier Controls whether a copy or restore operation truncates a sequential output file at the end-of-file (EOF) when creating it. By default, a copy or restore operation uses the allocation of the input file to determine the size of the output file. /UNSHELVE /UNSHELVE (default) /NOUNSHELVE Command Qualifier Controls whether the Backup utility designates files from a BACKUP save operation as unshelved or shelved. The /UNSHELVE qualifier specifies that the Backup utility designate files from a BACKUP save operation as unshelved, which means the data is available in an online state. A shelved file contains no actual file data. However, the file header remains intact and online. The default behavior is unshelved except during BACKUP save operations that require the /PHYSICAL or /IMAGE qualifier. For those operations, the files remain in their original file shelving state. For more information about file shelving, refer to the POLYCENTER File Shelving Facility (HSM) documentation. /VERIFY Command Qualifier Specifies that the contents of the output specifier be compared with the contents of the input specifier after a save, restore, or copy operation is completed. If a file does not compare successfully, BACKUP displays an error message. /VOLUME /VOLUME=n Command Qualifier Indicates that a specific disk volume in a disk volume set is to be processed. The /VOLUME qualifier is valid only when used with the /IMAGE qualifier. Using this qualifier allows you to perform BACKUP operations on a disk volume set when you have only one disk drive with which to perform BACKUP operations. 2 Examples 1.$ BACKUP _From: DBA1:[000000...] _To: MTA0:13NOVBAK.BCK,MTA1:/LABEL=(DLY101,DLY102) This BACKUP command saves the entire contents of the disk DBA1 onto a multivolume tape save set. This command does not initialize the first tape in the save set, but does initialize subsequent tapes. The first tape in the save set must be labeled DLY101 and the second tape in the save set must be labeled DLY102. 2.$ BACKUP [PLI.WORK]/SINCE=YESTERDAY/MODIFIED [PLI.SAV] This BACKUP command copies selected files in the directory [PLI.WORK] to the directory [PLI.SAV]. BACKUP processes only those files that have been modified since 24 hours preceding midnight last night. Note that the /MODIFIED qualifier is not required, as its action is the default when the /SINCE qualifier is specified. 3.$ BACKUP DBA2:[PLI.WORK]*.*; DBA3:[SAVE]23MAR82.BCK/SAVE_SET This BACKUP command saves the highest version of each file in directory [PLI.WORK] to a disk save set on DBA3. The /SAVE_ SET qualifier is required because the output save set is on a Files-11 disk. 4.$ BACKUP/PHYSICAL DYA0: DYA1: This BACKUP command copies the entire RX02 floppy disk mounted on device DYA0 to the RX02 floppy disk mounted on device DYA1. Both devices must have been mounted with the DCL command MOUNT /FOREIGN. 5.$ BACKUP _From: DB1:[SCHED]*.* _To: DENVER::DBA2:[SAVE]SCH.BCK/SAVE_SET This BACKUP command saves all files in the directory SCHED on disk DB1 at the local node to the network save set SCH.BCK at remote node DENVER. The /SAVE_SET qualifier is required to identify the output specifier as a save set on a Files-11 disk. 6.$ BACKUP/LIST DENVER::DBA2:[SAVE]SCH.BCK/SAVE_SET This BACKUP command lists the BACKUP summary information, the original BACKUP command used, and the file name, size, and creation date for each file in the save set created in the previous example. The /SAVE_SET qualifier is required to identify the input specifier as a save set on a Files-11 device. 7.$ BACKUP MTA0:NOV2SAVE.BCK/REWIND/SELECT=[USER...] [USER...] This command restores files from the magnetic tape save set named NOV2SAVE.BCK to the directory tree from which they were saved (the [USER] directory tree). The /REWIND qualifier directs BACKUP to rewind the tape to the beginning-of-tape before beginning the restore operation. 8.$ BACKUP WORK$:[TESTFILES...]*.*;* MUA0:TEST.SAV - _$ /MEDIA_FORMAT=COMPACTION /REWIND This command saves all files in the directory [TESTFILES] and its subdirectories to a save set named TEST.SAV using a TA90E tape drive. The /MEDIA_FORMAT=COMPACTION qualifier specifies that the tape drive automatically compacts and blocks together data records on the tape. 9.$ BACKUP/IMAGE/RECORD/VERIFY/NOASSIST _From: DKA100: _To: MKB100:MAR11.SAV/LABEL=(TAPE1,TAPE2,TAPE3)/EXACT_ORDER This example uses the /EXACT_ORDER qualifier to specify the exact order of labels for the BACKUP operation. Note that if you specify the /ASSIST qualifier, BACKUP would display messages on the operator terminal. BACKUP does the following: a. Compares the volume label of the tape in MKB100: with the first label that you specified on the command line (TAPE1). If the labels match exactly, BACKUP begins the save operation. If the labels do not match or if the tape does not have an ANSI label, BACKUP displays the following message: %BACKUP-W-MOUNTERR, volume 1 on MKB100: was not mounted because its label does not match the one requested %BACKUP-W-EXLABEER, volume label processing failed because volume TAPE4 is out of order, Volume label TAPE1 was expected specify option (QUIT, NEW tape, OVERWRITE tape, USE loaded tape) BACKUP> OVERWRITE Depending on the option you specify, you can quit the backup operation (QUIT), dismount the old tape and mount a new one (NEW), overwrite the label and the data on the tape (OVERWRITE), or write the data to the tape using the loaded tape's label (USE). b. When the operation fills the first tape, it displays the following message: %BACKUP-I-RESUME, resuming operation on volume 2 %BACKUP-I-READYWRITE, mount volume TAPE2 on MKB100: for writing Respond with YES when ready: c. When you load the second tape and enter YES, BACKUP compares the label of the second tape with the second label you specified on the command line (TAPE2) just as it did in step 1a. d. Assuming the volume labels match, BACKUP continues processing until it completes the operation or runs out of volume labels. If you do not specify enough labels on the command line to complete the operation, BACKUP prompts you to enter a label for the tape in the drive as follows: %BACKUP-W-MOUNTERR, volume 4 on MKB100: was not mounted because the label was not specified specify EXACT_ORDER label (up to 6 characters) BACKUP> BACKUP then compares the label on the tape with label you specify as described previously. 10$ BACKUP/IMAGE/RECORD/VERIFY/NOASSIST _From: DKA100:[TEST] _To: MKB100:MAR11.SAV/EXACT_ORDER Because this example does not use the /LABEL qualifier, BACKUP uses the existing label on the tape. If the tape does not have an ANSI label, and it is the first tape in the operation, BACKUP displays the following error message: %BACKUP-F-NOTANSI, tape is not valid ANSI format If the tape does not have an ANSI label, and is not the first tape in the operation, BACKUP displays the following error message prompting you to specify a label: %BACKUP-W-MOUNTERR, volume 2 on MKB100: was not mounted because the label was not specified specify EXACT_ORDER label (up to 6 characters) BACKUP> NOTE BACKUP checks to make sure you specify a valid label. If the label is not valid (for example, longer than six characters), BACKUP displays an error message. In previous versions of the OpenVMS operating system, BACKUP truncated long volume labels.