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1 RECOVER

Invokes the RMS Recovery Utility. Applicable only if you have the RMS Journaling option. See the OpenVMS RMS Journaling Manual. The RMS Recovery Utility (RECOVER/RMS_FILE) restores RMS files after the files have become lost or the data in them has become unusable. You can use RECOVER/RMS_FILE to redo operations (with after-image journaling, using a previously made backup file), or to undo operations (with before-image journaling, using the actual data file). Format { /FORWARD } RECOVER/RMS_FILE { /BACKWARD} filespec[,...] { } 2 Parameter filespec[,...] Specifies the file to be recovered. Wildcard characters (* and %) are allowed in the directory specification, file name, file type, and version number fields. If you specify more than one file, separate the file specifications with commas. For recovery using after-image journaling, use the backup copy of the data file as the file specification. For recovery using before-image journaling, use the original data file as the file specification. The file specification cannot include a node name, since the RECOVER/RMS_FILE command is not valid for network access. 2 Qualifiers /BACKWARD Rolls a file backward to a previous state. Use the /BACKWARD qualifier to recover a file using a journal that has before-image journal entries for the data file that you specify. To specify a date and time to which the file is to be rolled backward, use the /UNTIL qualifier. You should normally use this qualifier for before-image recovery; if you do not use the /UNTIL qualifier when you specify the /BACKWARD qualifier, the file is automatically rolled back to the time when the first entry was made in your before-image journal. The file is rolled back using the before-image journal that was specified when the file was marked for journaling with the SET FILE/BI_JOURNAL command. You can override this default by using the /JOURNAL qualifier. You must always specify either the /BACKWARD or the /FORWARD qualifier, but you cannot specify both. When you use before-image recovery for a file that also uses recovery unit journaling, the RMS Recovery Utility ensures that the data consistency provided by recovery unit journaling is maintained. The before-image journal includes records of a transaction being started, prepared, committed, or aborted. If you use the RECOVER/BACKWARD command to roll back a file that is also marked for recovery unit journaling, the file is rolled back and includes modifications for all transactions that were completed (committed) on or before the ending time of the before- image recovery, as follows: o If, at the time before-image recovery is to end, there are no active transactions, then before-image recovery takes place in the same way as when there is no recovery unit journaling. o If one or more transactions are active at the time before- image recovery is to end, only those modifications made within transactions that were completed (committed) on or before the ending time are included in the file. For example, suppose you issue the command RECOVER/BACKWARD /UNTIL=10:30 for a file marked for both before-image and recovery unit journaling. When before-image recovery is complete, the rolled-back file will include all modifications that were made within those transactions that completed on or before 10:30. o If you apply before-image recovery to a file that is used in a multifile application, then you must use the /UNTIL qualifier with the RECOVER/BACKWARD command in order to specify a time to which the file is rolled back. You should then roll back each of the files in the application to the same time specified for the first file. If you do not use the same time value for the /UNTIL qualifier, then the modifications for one or more transactions may be restored to some of your files, but not to others. If you attempt to recover a file used in a multifile application that uses more than one before-image journal, the journals must be recovered in their entirety to assure transaction consistency. If you use the /UNTIL qualifier, the recovered files may still be inconsistent. When the recovery operation is complete, the RMS Recovery Utility displays the time of the last record it processed (rolled back). This is generally the time of the first record modification after the ending time (as specified with the /UNTIL qualifier); however, it could be an earlier time if there were one or more incomplete transactions at the ending time of the before- image recovery. In this case, modifications made within such transactions are automatically undone as part of the before-image recovery operation, and the time of the last record processed would reflect the first record modified within one of those transactions. /BEFORE /BEFORE[=time] Selects only those files dated prior to the specified time. You can specify time as an absolute time, as a combination of absolute and delta times, or as one of the following keywords: TODAY (default), TOMORROW, or YESTERDAY. To indicate the time attribute to be used as the basis for selection, specify one of the following qualifiers with /BEFORE: /BACKUP, /CREATED (default), /EXPIRED, or /MODIFIED. For complete information on specifying time values, see the OpenVMS User's Manual. /BI_BUFFER_SIZE /BI_BUFFER_SIZE=blocks Specifies the number of blocks that RMS recovery reads for each I/O from the journal. This qualifier is similar in concept to the multiblock count field (RAB$B_MBC) in RMS. The blocks parameter is the size of the buffer used to read the before-image journal. The parameter can takes values of 1 to 127 blocks. Use the /BI_BUFFER_SIZE qualifier to tune your application and improve performance during recovery. For more information on how to tune your application using this value, see the Designing Files/Units of Input/Output section in the Guide to OpenVMS File Applications and the OpenVMS Record Management Services Reference Manual. You can use the /BI_BUFFER_SIZE qualifier only when you specify the /BACKWARD qualifier. /BY_OWNER /BY_OWNER[=uic] Selects only those files whose owner user identification code (UIC) matches the specified owner UIC. The default UIC is that of the current process. Specify the UIC using standard UIC format as described in the VMS DCL Concepts Manual. /CACHE_SIZE /CACHE_SIZE=buckets Specifies the number of indexed file buckets that are retained by in-memory cache during a recovery operation. Use the /CACHE_ SIZE qualifier to set the size of a cache in order to improve performance when recovering indexed files. In general, the performance of the recovery operation improves as the cache size grows larger. However, other system considerations could affect the ideal size. The /CACHE_SIZE qualifier is similar in concept to the multibuffer count field (RAB$B_MBF) in RMS. For more information on how to tune your application using this value, see the Guide to OpenVMS File Applications and the OpenVMS Record Management Services Reference Manual. The /CACHE_SIZE qualifier applies only to indexed files. You can use this qualifier with either /BACKWARD or /FORWARD recovery. /CREATED /CREATED (default) Modifies the time value specified with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier. The /CREATED qualifier selects files based on their dates of creation. This qualifier is incompatible with the other qualifiers that allow you to select files according to time attributes: /BACKUP, /EXPIRED, and /MODIFIED. If you specify none of these four time qualifiers, the default is /CREATED. /EXCLUDE /EXCLUDE=(file-spec[,...]) Excludes the specified files from the recovery operation. You can include a directory but not a device in the file specification. Wildcard characters are allowed in the file specification. However, you cannot use relative version numbers to exclude a specific version. If you provide only one file specification, you can omit the parentheses. /FORWARD Rolls a file forward from a previous state. Use the /FORWARD qualifier to recover a backup file by using the after-image journaling information contained in a journal. You must always specify either /FORWARD or /BACKWARD, but you cannot specify both. When you use the /FORWARD qualifier, you must use a backup copy of the original data file as the file specification in your RECOVER/RMS_FILE command line. The re-doing operation starts at the time the most recent backup was made (assuming that the /RECORD qualifier was used), and the backup file is rolled forward until the time of the most recent entry in the journal. You can override the latter value with the /UNTIL qualifier. The file is rolled forward using the after-image journal that was specified when the file was marked for journaling with the SET FILE/AI_JOURNAL command. If the after-image journal has been moved from its original directory, or if it has a different file name, or if it has been restored to disk from magnetic tape, then you must use the /JOURNAL qualifier to identify the journal. If you have more than one journal (for example, if you did not use the BACKUP/RECORD command immediately after creating a new journal), then you must use a series of as many RECOVER /FORWARD commands as there are journals. The RMS Recovery Utility automatically knows which journal to use (unless it has been moved or restored from a backup copy, in which case you must use the /JOURNAL qualifier), and it also prompts you to issue a subsequent RECOVER/FORWARD command by displaying a message indicating that another journal is to be processed. When the after-image recovery operation is complete, you must re- mark the restored file for after-image journaling before it can be used for further processing using after-image journaling. Re- marking the file for after-image journaling sets the "journaling enabled" bit in the file header, which had automatically been turned off by the Backup Utility when the backup copy was made. Immediately after re-marking the restored file for after-image journaling, you should also make a backup copy of it. When you use after-image recovery for a file that also uses recovery unit journaling, the RMS Recovery Utility ensures that the data consistency provided by recovery unit journaling is maintained. The after-image journal includes records of a transaction being started, prepared, committed, or aborted. If you use the RECOVER/FORWARD command to roll forward a file (that is, the backup copy of a data file) that is also marked for recovery unit journaling, the file is rolled forward and includes modifications for all transactions that were completed (committed) on or before the ending time of the after-image recovery, as follows: o If, at the time after-image recovery is to end, there are no active transactions, then after-image recovery takes place in the same way as when there is no recovery unit journaling. o If one or more transactions are active at the time after- image recovery is to end, only those modifications made within transactions that were completed (committed) on or before the ending time are applied to the file. For example, suppose you issue the command RECOVER/FORWARD /UNTIL=10:30 for the backup copy of a file marked for both after-image and recovery unit journaling. When after-image recovery is complete, the restored file will include all modifications that were made within those transactions that completed on or before 10:30. o If your application uses more than one file, the following conditions apply to the use of the /UNTIL qualifier: - If you do not use the /UNTIL qualifier with the first backup copy that you restore with the RECOVER/FORWARD command, you need only restore those files in the application that are corrupted or lost. However, in this case, do not use the /UNTIL qualifier with any of the files that you restore, in order to maintain data consistency among all of those files. - If you do use the /UNTIL qualifier with the first file that you restore with the RECOVER/FORWARD command, then you must restore every file in the application, and you must use the /UNTIL qualifier with the same time value for each file. If you do not use the same time value for the /UNTIL qualifier, then the modifications for one or more transactions may be restored to some of your files, but not to others. If you attempt to recover a file used in a multifile application that uses more than one after-image journal, the journals must be recovered in their entirety to assure transaction consistency. If you use the /UNTIL qualifier, the recovered files may still be inconsistent. /JOURNAL /JOURNAL=journal-filespec Specifies the journal that is to be used for recovery operations. By default, the RMS Recovery Utility uses the file specification for the journal that was specified when the data file was marked for journaling (with the SET FILE/AI_JOURNAL or the SET FILE/BI_ JOURNAL command). To override the default and specify a different file specification for the same journal, use the /JOURNAL qualifier. The default file specification for the journal is filename.RMS$JOURNAL. You can use the /JOURNAL qualifier if the journal is in a different location from that originally specified in the SET FILE command (for example, if the original journal becomes unusable and a backup copy of the journal is on another volume). You can only use a journal that contains valid after-image or before-image data for the specified file. If you have a series of journals that are to be used in the recovery operation, and the journals have the same file specifications as when the SET FILE commands were issued, then you do not need to use the /JOURNAL qualifier. In this case, simply use a series of RECOVER commands, as explained in OpenVMS RMS Journaling Manual. /LOG /LOG /NOLOG (default) Generates a log of the recovery operation. When you use the /LOG qualifier, the RMS Recovery Utility displays the number of records that were processed during the recovery operation, and the date and time of the last record that was processed (recovered). /MODIFIED Modifies the time value specified with the /BEFORE or /SINCE qualifier. The /MODIFIED qualifier selects files according to the dates on which they were last modified. This qualifier is incompatible with the other qualifiers that allow you to select files according to time attributes: /BACKUP, /CREATED, and /EXPIRED. If you specify none of these four time modifiers, the default is /CREATED. /SINCE /SINCE[=time] Selects only those files dated after the specified time. You can specify time as an absolute time, a combination of absolute and delta times, or as one of the following keywords: TODAY (default), TOMORROW, or YESTERDAY. Specify one of the following qualifiers with /BEFORE to indicate the time attribute to be used as the basis for selection: /BACKUP, /CREATED (default), /EXPIRED, or /MODIFIED. For complete information on specifying time values, see the OpenVMS User's Manual. /UNTIL /UNTIL=time Specifies the ending date and time for an after-image or before- image recovery operation. Specify the date and time using either absolute time or delta time. See the OpenVMS Glossary for more information about specifying absolute or delta time. The /UNTIL qualifier functions as follows: o For after-image recovery, the /UNTIL qualifier specifies the date and time up to which the backup copy of the data file is to be restored. If you do not use the /UNTIL qualifier with after-image recovery, then all updates through the most recent update recorded in the after-image journal are restored. o For before-image recovery, the /UNTIL qualifier specifies the date and time to which the data file is rolled back. That is, all modifications to the data file from the present time to the time specified with the /UNTIL qualifier are removed. In most cases, you should use the /UNTIL qualifier with before- image recovery; if you do not, then all modifications recorded in the before-image journal are removed. If you are recovering a file that is also marked for recovery unit journaling, the following rules apply: o For applications using only one file, if the time specified with the /UNTIL qualifier (or the most recent modification in an after-image recovery if /UNTIL is not used) is a point at which there are no active transactions for the file, then the file is restored to the time specified by the /UNTIL qualifier. o If one or more transactions were active at the time specified by /UNTIL, only those modifications made within transactions that were completed (committed) on or before that time are applied to the file. For example, suppose you issue the command RECOVER/FORWARD/UNTIL=10:30 for the backup copy of a file marked for both after-image and recovery unit journaling. Then, the restored file will include all modifications that were made within those transactions that completed on or before 10:30. (The same rule applies to before-image recovery: only those modifications made within transactions that were completed before the /UNTIL time are included in the restored file.) o For applications using after-image recovery in which more than one file is associated with record streams connected to the same transaction, you should exercise care in choosing whether or not to use the /UNTIL qualifier. If you do not use the /UNTIL qualifier with the first backup copy that you restore with after-image journaling, you need only restore those files in the application that are corrupted or lost. In this case, do not use the /UNTIL qualifier with any of the files that you restore. However, if you do use the /UNTIL qualifier with the first file that you restore, then you must restore each file in the application, using the /UNTIL qualifier with the same time value for each file. If you do not use the same time value for the /UNTIL qualifier, then the modifications for one or more transactions may be restored to some of your files, but not to others. o For applications using before-image recovery in which more than one file is associated with record streams connected to the same transaction, use the /UNTIL qualifier with the command RECOVER/BACKWARD in order to specify a time to which the file is rolled back. Then restore each of the files in the application to the same time specified for the first file, in order to ensure that the modifications for one or more transactions are not restored to some of your files, but not to others. o If you attempt to recover a file used in a multifile application that uses more than one after-image or before- image journal, the journals must be recovered in their entirety to assure transaction consistency. If you use the /UNTIL qualifier, the recovered files may still be inconsistent. NOTE The /UNTIL qualifier is a positional qualifier. For example, if you enter the following command, the file FILE-1 will be recovered up to the present, and file FILE-2 will be recovered until "yesterday." $ RECOVER/FORWARD FILE-1,FILE-2/UNTIL=YESTERDAY 2 Examples 1.$ RECOVER/RMS_FILE/BACKWARD/LOG/UNTIL=30-JUN-1990 WEEKLY.DAT %RMSREC-I-FILBACKWARD, $DISK1:[PAYROLL]WEEKLY.DAT;17 rolled backward %RMSREC-I-DATETIME, date/time of last record processed: 30-JUN-1990 07:41:23.27 %RMSREC-I-NUMRECS, 936 records processed This command rolls the file WEEKLY.DAT backward until 30 June 1990 (default time of day of 00:00). The Recovery Utility automatically uses the before-image journal that was specified (or implied) with the most recent SET FILE/BI_JOURNAL command for the file SALES.DAT. The /LOG qualifier instructs the RMS Recovery Utility to display the number of records processed (that is, undone) and the date and time that the last record was written. After this command is executed, the file WEEKLY.DAT is the same as it was at midnight, 30 June 1990. 2.$ DIRECTORY/SIZE ACCOUNTS_PAYABLE.RMS$JOURNAL ACCOUNTS_PAYABLE.RMS$JOURNAL;1 108 $ RECOVER/RMS_FILE/BACKWARD/BI_BUFFER_SIZE=108 ACCOUNTS_PAYABLE.DAT This example shows that the journal called ACCOUNTS_ PAYABLE.RMS$JOURNAL has a size of 108 blocks. The RECOVER/RMS_ FILE/BI_BUFFER=108 command sets the buffer to be 108 blocks. 3.$ RECOVER/FORWARD/UNTIL=30-JUN-1990/LOG WEEKLY_BACKUP.DAT %RMSREC-I-FILFORWARD, $DISK1:[PAYROLL]WEEKLY_BACKUP.DAT;17 rolled forward %RMSREC-I-DATETIME, date/time of last record processed: 30-JUN-1990 15:23:44.30 %RMSREC-I-NUMRECS, 2554 records processed This command rolls the file WEEKLY_BACKUP.DAT forward, beginning at the time that the file was created by the Backup Utility. It is rolled forward until 30 June 1990 (using the default time of day 00:00). Using the /LOG qualifier provides information about the number of records processed and the date and time of the last record that was restored. This RECOVER command assumes the default qualifier /RMS_FILE. After this operation, the file WEEKLY_BACKUP.DAT is the same as the data file for which it was the backup copy (WEEKLY.DAT) at midnight on 30 June 1990. In order to use the restored file WEEKLY_BACKUP.DAT for further processing in which after- image journaling will take place, you must re-mark the file for after-image journaling. 4.$ RECOVER/RMS_FILE/FORWARD/LOG BACKUP.DAT %RMSREC-I-FILFORWARD, $DISK1:[PAYROLL]BACKUP.DAT;17 rolled forward %RMSREC-I-DATETIME, date/time of last record processed: 4-MAY-1990 11:28:29.74 %RMSREC-I-NUMRECS, 3490 records processed This command rolls the file forward, beginning at the point at which the last backup was made (using the BACKUP/RECORD command) and continuing through the last record that was written to the journal. At this point, the recovered file has the same data as the data file on 4 May at 11:28, with the file characteristics of the backup file. 5.$ RECOVER/FORWARD/JOURNAL=ARCHIVE_DISK:INVENTORY INVENTORY.BCK In this example, the after-image journal called ARCHIVE_ DISK:INVENTORY.RMS$JOURNAL is applied to the file INVENTORY.BCK, which is a backup copy of a data file. In this case, ARCHIVE_DISK:INVENTORY.RMS$JOURNAL might be either a backup copy of a valid after-image journal, or the original journal itself which had been moved to a different volume. The /RMS_FILE qualifier is used by default.

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