1 EXCHANGEInvokes the Exchange utility (EXCHANGE), which manipulates mass storage volumes that are written in formats other than those normally recognized by the operating system. EXCHANGE allows you to perform any of the following tasks: o Create foreign volumes. o Transfer files to and from the volume. o List directories of the volume. For block-addressable devices, such as RT-11 disks, EXCHANGE performs additional operations such as renaming and deleting files. EXCHANGE can also manipulate Files-11 files that are images of foreign volumes; these files are called virtual devices. Format EXCHANGE [subcommand] [filespec] [filespec] 2 Description You can use EXCHANGE in two ways. You can work interactively (within the utility) by entering "EXCHANGE" at the DCL prompt. This invokes the utility, which responds with the EXCHANGE> prompt. You can then enter any EXCHANGE command. You must invoke the utility and use it interactively if you want to execute more than one EXCHANGE command. However, you can enter a single EXCHANGE command at DCL level. For example, the following command entered at DCL level lists the directory of a foreign volume: $ EXCHANGE DIRECTORY DMA1:/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11 When you use EXCHANGE at the DCL level, the utility returns you to the DCL prompt after it completes its task. If you are using EXCHANGE interactively, you can return to DCL at any time by typing EXIT or CTRL/Z. You can direct output from EXCHANGE operations in several ways. The command qualifier /[NO]MESSAGE allows you to control the default display of information from EXCHANGE MOUNT, INITIALIZE, and DISMOUNT operations. When you use the EXCHANGE commands COPY, DELETE, RENAME, or TYPE, include the /LOG qualifier to send information about the files being processed to SYS$OUTPUT. When you use the EXCHANGE command DIRECTORY, use the /OUTPUT[=file- spec] qualifier to direct the output to a specified file. If you specify the /OUTPUT qualifier without a file specification, the output is directed to SYS$OUTPUT. To send the output to a printer, use the /PRINTER qualifier with the DIRECTORY command. 2 Parameters subcommand Defines the specific operation to be performed. filespec Specifies the device name, directory, and file name for the EXCHANGE input or output device. It has the following general form: device:[directory]filename.filetype;version device: The device name can be either a standard OpenVMS device name of the form ddcu: or a logical name that translates to an OpenVMS device name. If the device field is omitted for a reference, the current default device is assumed. When a virtual device is mounted, a name is created for the virtual device and is used as the device name in subsequent EXCHANGE commands. [directory]The syntax of the directory subfield is volume specific. filename The name field file specification for an input or output file. The exact format allowed for the filename is dependent on the volume format qualifier used. filetype The extension field of the file specification. version The version number of the file, if supported by the volume type. 2 COPY Transfers a file or files from an input volume to an output volume. You can use the COPY command to do any of the following: o Copy a file from a foreign volume to a native volume o Copy a file from a native volume to a foreign volume o Copy a file from one foreign volume to another foreign volume o Convert the format of the file during the transfer o Copy groups of files from volume to volume o Give the output file a different name from the input file Format COPY input-file-spec[, . . . ] output-file-spec 3 Parameters input-file-spec[, . . . ] Specifies the names of one or more input files to be copied. If you specify more than one input file, separate them with commas or plus signs. The syntax for input file names depends on the volume format option. You can specify standard OpenVMS wildcards in both Files-11 and foreign file names. COPY supports wildcard directories for Files-11 and DOS-11 input. NOTE The EXCHANGE COPY command does not process search lists as input files. If you specify a search list as input to the COPY command, only the first item is processed. For example, suppose you issue the following commands: $ DEFINE search_list [directory_1], [directory_2] $ EXCHANGE COPY search_list:*.* [directory_3] The EXCHANGE command does not copy anything from directory_ 2. output-file-spec Specifies the name of the output file, directory, or device to which the input files are to be copied. If the input is a single file, you can specify an explicit output name (which is equivalent to a rename on a copy operation). If the input is more than one file, the output specifier must be one of the following: o Wildcards (*, *.* or *.*;*) specifying current default device and directory o An explicit device and/or directory for Files-11 output, such as BB:[EXCHANGE.TMP], with or without wildcards for the file name o An explicit device for RT-11 as in DLA2:/VOLUME=RT11 o An explicit device or directory for DOS-11 output, such as TAPE:/VOLUME=DOS11 or TAPE:[11,132]/VOLUME=DOS11 The output file names are constructed according to rules implied by the input and output volume qualifiers. COPY does not concatenate multiple input files into a single output file. Wildcard directories are not permitted. The syntax for input file names depends on the volume format option. You must specify at least one field in the output file specification; COPY replaces missing fields with the corresponding field of the related input file specification. If the input file has no corresponding field, COPY substitutes null text fields and maximizes version numbers. The UIC of the output file is the UIC of the current process. For DOS-11 output in UIC format, EXCHANGE uses the current default directory; otherwise, it uses the current process UIC as a directory. You can specify an alternate directory for DOS-11 output in the command. 3 Description COPY transfers a file or files from an input volume to an output volume. You can create multiple output files by specifying multiple input files. When multiple output files are created, the corresponding field from each input file is used in the output file name. If you do not specify a version number for Files-11 output, COPY applies a version number as follows: o The same version number as that of the input file, if the input volume structure supports version numbers and no file exists with the same name and type o A version number that is one greater than the highest version number of an existing file with the same file name and file type o Version 1, if neither of the above applies If you use an asterisk (*) wildcard character to specify the output file version number, COPY uses the version numbers of the associated input files (if any) as the version numbers of the output files. Note that ANSI-formatted magnetic tapes do not handle version numbers in the same manner as disks. EXCHANGE might reformat files during the copy operation. The defaults for reformatting are dependent on the record and volume format qualifiers that are attached to both the input and output file specifications, as well as the type fields of the file specifications. The COPY command does not copy a file with the SYS type unless you specify the /SYSTEM qualifier. EXCHANGE displays a message if it passes over one or more SYS files during a copy operation. EXCHANGE does not copy files with the type BAD if the file specification contains wildcards. EXCHANGE does not display a message when it passes over one or more BAD files during a copy operation. Therefore, to copy a file with the type BAD, specify the file name explicitly instead of using wildcards. 3 Qualifiers /ALLOCATION /ALLOCATION=n Forces the initial allocation of the output file to the number of 512-byte blocks that you specified as n. The /ALLOCATION qualifier is valid only for Files-11 and RT-11 output files. By default, COPY determines the initial allocation of the output file by the size of the input file. Typically, /ALLOCATION is needed only when you are creating a contiguous file on Files-11 (using /BEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS or /CONTIGUOUS), when the input file is on magnetic tape, or when you want additional space at the end of the file. If you specify /ALLOCATION, the file's allocated size does not change, unless you also specify /TRUNCATE. When you are unsure of the output size, you might want to specify both /ALLOCATION and /TRUNCATE. /BEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS /BEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS /NOBEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS Indicates whether the Files-11 output file is to be allocated contiguously on a "best effort" basis; that is, whether EXCHANGE will attempt to place the file on consecutive physical disk blocks. If insufficient contiguous space is available, the file occupies the largest available contiguous space plus additional extents as necessary for the rest of the allocation. You can apply this qualifier only to a Files-11 output file. The /BEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS qualifier has no effect when you copy files to magnetic tape volumes. When you would like a file from a magnetic tape to be copied contiguously, use both the /ALLOCATION and the /BEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS qualifiers, because the size of the file on magnetic tape cannot be determined until after it is copied to the disk. If you do not know the exact size of the file, overestimate the size and specify /TRUNCATE (along with /ALLOCATION and /BEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS) to avoid wasted space. The default is /NOBEST_TRY_CONTIGUOUS. /BOOT /BOOT[=nn] Copies bootstrap information from a monitor and the handler files to blocks 0 and 2 through 5 of an RT-11 volume, permitting you to use that volume as a system volume. The COPY/BOOT operation does not create any files on the volume; it is intended only to create bootable RT-11 systems. The /BOOT qualifier implies /VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11 for both input and output specifications. The output device can be omitted, as it is assumed to be identical to the input device. You cannot combine the /BOOT qualifier with qualifiers other than /LOG. The COPY/BOOT command requires that both the input and output devices be the same volume or virtual device. The file name of the desired monitor must be specified as the input specification. RT-11 Version 1.0 through Version 3.0 monitors had the system device handler linked into the monitor image. For Version 4.0 of RT-11, the system device handler uses the standard device handler, and the COPY/BOOT command must dynamically link the handler into the bootstrap area. COPY/BOOT finds the default handler for the specific device type and merges the handler with the monitor as it is copied to the boot area. You can use the two-letter argument nn to override the default system device handler. The most frequent use of this option occurs when a diskette is mounted in an RX02 drive, and you want to create a diskette bootable from an RX01 drive. (The diskette must be single density.) The default handler for the RX02 is DY.SYS, and the handler for the RX01 is DX.SYS; therefore, you would use the command COPY/BOOT=DX to create the bootable RX01 system diskette. Do not specify /BOOT=nn for Version 3.0 RT-11 and earlier systems; instead, choose the monitor file DYMNxx.SYS or DXMNxx.SYS as the source file. /CARRIAGE_CONTROL /CARRIAGE_CONTROL=option Defines the carriage control attributes of a file, as well as other attributes of the records. The carriage control options are: CARRIAGE_RETURN, which implies carriage return/line-feed control; FORTRAN, which indicates that the first character of each record is to be interpreted as the carriage control specifier; and NONE, which indicates that carriage control is not implied. The default is /CARRIAGE_CONTROL=CARRIAGE_RETURN. /CONTIGUOUS /CONTIGUOUS /NOCONTIGUOUS Indicates whether the copied file is to be contiguous; that is, stored on consecutive physical blocks on an output disk volume. The /CONTIGUOUS qualifier is valid only for Files-11 output files. The /CONTIGUOUS qualifier has no effect when you copy files to magnetic tape volumes. When you would like a file from a magnetic tape to be copied contiguously, use both the /ALLOCATION and /CONTIGUOUS qualifiers because the size of the file on magnetic tape cannot be determined until after it is copied to the disk. If you do not know the exact size of the file, overestimate the size and specify the /TRUNCATE qualifier (along with /ALLOCATION and /CONTIGUOUS) to avoid wasted space. The default is /NOCONTIGUOUS. /DELETE /DELETE /NODELETE Controls whether COPY deletes existing files of the same name during the copy operation. This qualifier is valid for RT-11 output only; it is equivalent to the RT-11 COPY command qualifier /REPLACE. In fact, you can use the EXCHANGE COPY command qualifier /REPLACE to control file deletion, although its function differs from that of /DELETE (see the description of the /REPLACE qualifier for details on its function). If you want a message displayed when you delete a file, include the /LOG qualifier in your command. To prevent automatic file deletion, use /NODELETE. The default is /DELETE. Files with the same name as the output file name are deleted after the new file has been copied. /EXTENSION /EXTENSION=n Specifies the number of blocks to be added to the output file each time the file is extended. This qualifier is valid for Files-11 output files only. EXCHANGE determines the default extension according to the following hierarchy: 1. An explicit value specified on the /EXTENSION qualifier 2. The current process default extension value set by the command SET RMS_DEFAULT 3. The current system default extension value set at system generation or with the SET RMS_DEFAULT/SYSTEM command Use the /EXTENSION qualifier to set an extension quantity with magnetic tape input; EXCHANGE preallocates a file of the correct size when the input is on a directory-structured-device. /LOG /LOG /NOLOG Controls whether the EXCHANGE command COPY displays the file specifications of each file copied. If you specify /LOG, the system displays the following data for each copy operation: the file specifications of the input and output files, and the number of blocks or the number of records copied (depending on whether the file is copied on a block-by-block or record-by- record basis). The default is /NOLOG. /PROTECT /PROTECT /NOPROTECT Determines whether protection is set for an RT-11 output file. The owner UIC of the output file is the UIC of the current process. This qualifier is not valid for Files-11 or DOS-11 output files. Protection attributes for Files-11 output are taken from the current process default protection. EXCHANGE does not attempt to transfer protection attributes from the input file to the output file, because protection mechanisms of various operating systems do not readily translate to one another. The default is /NOPROTECT. /RECORD_FORMAT /RECORD_FORMAT=(option[, . . . ]) Defines the internal record structure of a file, as well as other attributes of the records. /REPLACE /REPLACE /NOREPLACE Requests that if an RT-11 output file already exists with the same file specification as that entered for the output file, the existing file is to be deleted before the copy proceeds. COPY allocates new space for the output file. The /REPLACE qualifier is valid for RT-11 output only; it is equivalent to the RT-11 COPY command qualifier /PREDELETE. By default, COPY creates the new file first and then, after the copy operation is done, deletes the previous file. However, when you use /REPLACE, COPY deletes the previous file before it copies the new file. This can be a problem if the input file has been corrupted because the previous version of the file will have been deleted. Therefore, you should use /REPLACE only when there is insufficient room for two copies of the file. /REWIND /REWIND /NOREWIND Determines whether a DOS-11 input magnetic tape reel logically rewinds to the beginning-of-tape mark (BOT) before EXCHANGE searches for the file name specified in the input specifier. This qualifier is valid for DOS-11 magnetic tape only. The default is /NOREWIND. Use the /REWIND qualifier when you want COPY to search for a file from the logical beginning of the magnetic tape, instead of from the current physical position of the tape. /START_BLOCK /START_BLOCK=[n] For RT-11 volumes, specifies the logical block number where the file is to be placed. This qualifier is especially useful with TU58 tape cassettes, because performance can be significantly enhanced by careful placement of files. /SYSTEM /SYSTEM /NOSYSTEM Controls whether the COPY command copies files that have the file type SYS. Files with a file type of SYS are usually necessary for the operation of an RT-11 system. Only RT-11 volumes handle SYS files in this manner. The default is /NOSYSTEM; the COPY command does not copy an RT-11 file with the type SYS, whether matched by a wildcard specification or explicitly named. EXCHANGE displays a message whenever it skips over a SYS file during a copy operation. /TRANSFER_MODE /TRANSFER_MODE=option Specifies the I/O method to be used in a transfer. This qualifier is useful for all volume formats. Option Function AUTO Select BLOCK transfer for efficiency if possible BLOCK Transfer block by block without looking at records RECORD Transfer record by record The default is the AUTOMATIC transfer mode. In AUTOMATIC mode, EXCHANGE attempts to use a BLOCK transfer whenever possible. BLOCK transfers are possible between RT-11 volumes or between RT-11 and DOS-11 volumes, since the internal file structures are identical. AUTOMATIC does not use the BLOCK transfer if either file specification contains a /RECORD_FORMAT qualifier. A BLOCK transfer moves data between devices. Since no interpretation is done on the data, BLOCK transfers are more efficient than RECORD transfers. The block sizes on both devices must be identical. Both input and output must be in BLOCK format. Specifying BLOCK on one parameter implies BLOCK for the other file or device specification. A BLOCK transfer produces an exact copy of the file. If the output device is Files-11, the file will be a sequential file with fixed-length 512-byte records. This feature is used primarily to avoid any interpretation of the data during the transfer. If the Files-11 file is a sequential file with 512-byte fixed-length records, there is no difference between a /TRANSFER_ MODE=BLOCK transfer and a /RECORD=FIXED=512 transfer. A RECORD transfer moves the data record by record. A RECORD transfer requires more time than a BLOCK transfer, but it must be used if the input and output record structures differ. When the /LOG qualifier is used in a COPY command, EXCHANGE displays the size of the file that was transferred. If BLOCK mode was used, the message gives the file size as the number of blocks transferred. If RECORD mode was used, the message displays the number of records. /TRUNCATE /TRUNCATE /NOTRUNCATE Controls whether COPY truncates an output file at the end-of- file when copying it. The default is /NOTRUNCATE; COPY uses the allocation of the input file to determine the size of the output file. /VOLUME_FORMAT /VOLUME_FORMAT=option Defines the physical format of the volume to be processed. The default format qualifier is dependent on the device type. If used, volume format qualifiers must be attached to one or both of the file specification parameters; you cannot attach them directly to the command. A volume format qualifier determines the format of the file name and directory specifications, and often implies certain defaults. 3 Examples 1.EXCHANGE> COPY TEST.DAT DYA0:NEWTST.DAT/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11 The command in this example copies the contents of the file TEST.DAT from the default disk and directory into a file named NEWTST.DAT on an RT-11 diskette (mounted on DYA0). If a file named NEWTST.DAT already exists, the COPY command replaces it. The record formats are variable length on the Files-11 input and ASCII stream on the RT-11 output. 2.EXCHANGE> COPY/LOG TEST.DAT DYA0:NEWTST.DAT %EXCHANGE-S-DELETEPREV, previous copy of DYA0:NEWTST.DAT deleted %EXCHANGE-S-COPIED, WRKD$:[FRED]TEST.DAT;5 copied to DYA0:NEWTST.DAT, 93 records The command in this example is the same as in the preceding example, except that the /LOG qualifier is included so that the actions of the command are displayed. The /VOLUME_FORMAT qualifier is omitted; EXCHANGE defaults to RT-11 format for the foreign mounted diskette. Since a file named NEWTST.DAT already exists on the diskette (from the command in the previous example), the first copy of the file is deleted after the second copy is successfully transferred. 3.EXCHANGE> COPY/LOG LARGE.DAT DYA0:/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11 %EXCHANGE-S-DELETEPREV, previous copy of _DYA0:LARGE.DAT deleted %EXCHANGE-W-RTOUTEOF, end-of-file on output _DYA0:LARGE.DAT, insufficient space on volume %EXCHANGE-I-PARTCOPIED, WRKD$:[FRED]LARGE.DAT;9 partially copied to _DYA0:LARGE.DAT, 1670 records EXCHANGE> COPY/LOG/REPLACE LARGE.DAT DYA0:/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11 %EXCHANGE-S-DELETEPREV, previous copy of _DYA0:LARGE.DAT deleted %EXCHANGE-S-COPIED, WRKD$:[FRED]LARGE.DAT;9 copied to _DYA0:LARGE.DAT, 3288 records The first command in this example fails because there is insufficient space on DYA0 for EXCHANGE to do a normal copy (that is, to copy the file into a temporary file on DYA0, delete the existing file of the same name, and then rename the temporary file). The second command in this example includes the /REPLACE qualifier, which directs COPY to delete an existing version of the output file before copying the new file. The first message generated by this command indicates that EXCHANGE has deleted an existing file. The second message indicates that the copy operation has successfully completed. 4.EXCHANGE> COPY MTA0:[11,132]*.COM/VOLUME_FORMAT=DOS11 [FRED.TEMP] The command in this example copies all files with the file type COM owned by UIC [11,132] to the subdirectory [FRED.TEMP]. The default DOS-11 record format is STREAM. The default Files-11 record format is VARIABLE. 5.EXCHANGE> COPY/BOOT DYA0:RT11SJ.SYS DYA0: The COPY/BOOT command in this example makes the diskette mounted on the RX02 drive DYA0 a bootable RT-11 system. Bootstrap information is written to the volume using the RT-11 single job monitor RT11SJ.SYS and the system device handler DY.SYS. The diskette can be formatted in single or double density. 6.EXCHANGE> COPY/BOOT=DX DYA0:RT11SJ.SYS DYA0: As in the previous example, the COPY/BOOT command in this example makes the diskette mounted on the RX02 drive DYA0 a bootable RT-11 system. In this example, however, the system device handler is DX.SYS, the RX01 diskette handler. The diskette must be formatted in single density in order to boot on the RT-11 system. 7.EXCHANGE> COPY/BOOT CSA1:CONSOL.SYS The command in this example writes bootstrap information on the console storage device on a VAX processor. 8.EXCHANGE> COPY DMA0:FROG.DAT/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11- _EXCHANGE> /RECORD=STREAM FROG4JUN.DAT/RECORD=(FIXED=80,PAD=" ") The command in this example copies an ASCII stream file (the default) from an RT-11 volume to the current default device and directory. The output contains fixed-length records that are padded to 80 bytes with the space character. 2 DELETE Deletes one or more files from a foreign block-addressable mass storage volume. EXCHANGE does not delete files from Files-11 volumes; the DELETE command is supported only on RT-11 volumes. Format DELETE file-spec[, . . . ] 3 Parameter file-spec[, . . . ] Specifies the names of one or more files to be deleted. You can specify wildcard characters in any of the file specification fields. To delete more than one file, separate the file specifications with commas or plus signs. The DELETE command does not delete a file with the SYS type unless you specify the /SYSTEM qualifier. EXCHANGE displays a message if it passes over one or more SYS files during a delete operation. EXCHANGE does not delete files with the type BAD if the file specification contains wildcards. When this happens, you will not receive a warning. Therefore, to delete files with the type BAD, enter their file specifications explicitly. 3 Qualifiers /LOG /LOG /NOLOG Controls whether the DELETE command displays the file specification of each deleted file. The default is /NOLOG. /SYSTEM /SYSTEM /NOSYSTEM Controls whether the DELETE command deletes files with the file type .SYS. Files with the type .SYS are usually necessary for the operation of an RT-11 system. Only RT-11 volumes handle .SYS files in this manner. The default is /NOSYSTEM; the DELETE command does not delete an RT-11 file with the .SYS type, whether matched by a wildcard specification or explicitly named. EXCHANGE displays a message whenever it skips a SYS file during a delete operation. /VOLUME_FORMAT /VOLUME_FORMAT=option Defines the physical format of the volume to be processed. RT-11 volumes are the only volumes on which DELETE is currently supported. 3 Examples 1.EXCHANGE> DELETE DMA0:COMMON.SUM/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11 The command in this example deletes the file COMMON.SUM from the RT-11 device DMA0. 2.EXCHANGE> DELETE DXA0:*.OLD The command in this example deletes all files with the file type OLD from the diskette. 3.EXCHANGE> MOUNT /VIRTUAL TEST: TEST.DSK/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11 EXCHANGE> DELETE TEST:ALPHA.TXT,BETA.TXT The command in this example deletes the files ALPHA.TXT and BETA.TXT from the virtual device file TEST.DSK. 2 DIRECTORY Provides a list of files or information about a file or group of files. The files must reside on a foreign volume; EXCHANGE does not list directories of Files-11 volumes. Format DIRECTORY [file-spec[, . . . ]] 3 Parameters file-spec[, . . . ] Specifies one or more files to be listed. The /VOLUME_FORMAT qualifier determines the syntax of a file specification. To specify more than one file, separate the file specifications with either commas or plus signs. You can use wildcard characters in the directory specification, file name, file type, or version number fields of a file specification. 3 Description The output of the DIRECTORY command depends on the volume format and on certain formatting qualifiers and defaults. The following are the formatting qualifiers: /ALL /BLOCKS /BRIEF /COLUMNS /DATE /FULL /OCTAL /OWNER /SIZE The files that are listed always appear in the order in which they appear in the volume directory or the order in which they reside on a magnetic tape. 3 Qualifiers /ALL /ALL /NOALL Lists all deleted or unused files on an RT-11 volume, in addition to other files selected by the command. For example, the following command lists all MACRO source files, in addition to deleted and unused files: EXCHANGE> DIRECTORY DMA0:*.MAC/ALL /BADBLOCKS /BADBLOCKS /NOBADBLOCKS Scans the volume to find any blocks that return read errors. The data on the volume is not modified. If a bad block replacement table is present, the contents of the table are displayed. This is valid for RT-11 volumes only. /BLOCKS /BLOCKS /NOBLOCKS Lists the starting block number of the file. This qualifier is valid only for directories of RT-11 devices. The first block of the device is block number 0. The default is /NOBLOCKS. /BRIEF /BRIEF /NOBRIEF Includes only the file name of each file to be listed. Specifying the /BRIEF qualifier is equivalent to specifying /NODATE/NOSIZE. The default is /BRIEF. /COLUMNS /COLUMNS=n Lists the files, using the specified number of columns on each line of the display. This qualifier is used in conjunction with the /BRIEF qualifier (either explicitly or by default). The default number of columns is dependent on the volume format and the information requested. The DIRECTORY command attempts to use as many columns as possible. If you request too many columns, DIRECTORY displays a message and reduces the number of columns to the number that fit on the listing. /DATE /DATE /NODATE Includes the date for each file listed. If you omit this qualifier, the default is /DATE. /DELETED /DELETED /NODELETED Lists a directory of files that have been deleted from an RT-11 device, but whose file name information has not been destroyed. The listing includes the file names, types, sizes, creation dates, and starting block numbers (in decimal, unless you also specify the /OCTAL qualifier) of the deleted files. The /DELETED qualifier is valid only with block-addressable volumes in RT-11 format. The default is /NODELETED. /FREE /FREE /NOFREE Includes unused areas in the directory listing. The /FREE qualifier is valid only with RT-11 formatted volumes. /FULL Lists all the available information for each file. The format of the listing depends on the format of the volume. The /FULL qualifier overrides the default brief listing format. /OCTAL /OCTAL /NOOCTAL Controls whether numeric information is displayed in decimal or octal format. The default is /NOOCTAL; numbers are displayed in decimal radix. Dates are always displayed in decimal format. /OUTPUT /OUTPUT[=file-spec] Writes the DIRECTORY output to a specified file, rather than to the current SYS$OUTPUT device. If you specify the /OUTPUT qualifier without a file specification, the output is directed to SYS$OUTPUT. If you omit the file type in the file specification, the default file type is LIS. If you specify a file type and omit the file name, the default file name is EXCHDIRE. No wildcard characters are allowed in the file specification. /OWNER Displays information about the owner of a volume and the files on the volume. For RT-11, the volume owner is shown. For DOS-11, the UIC of the file owner is shown. /PRINTER Queues the command output for printing under the name specified by the /OUTPUT qualifier. If you specify /PRINTER without the /OUTPUT qualifier, the output is directed to a file named EXCHDIRE.LIS, which is spooled for printing and then deleted. /SIZE /SIZE /NOSIZE Displays the file size in blocks for each file listed. The default is /SIZE. /SUMMARY /SUMMARY /NOSUMMARY Lists a summary of the usage of the directory segments for an RT-11 volume. If a bad block replacement table is present, the contents of the table are displayed. /VOLUME_FORMAT /VOLUME_FORMAT=option Defines the physical format of the volume to be processed. The default format is dependent on the device type. The EXCHANGE command DIRECTORY is not valid for Files-11 devices. 3 Examples 1.EXCHANGE> DIRECTORY DLA2:.OBJ/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11/FULL The command in this example lists all files with the type OBJ on the RT-11 volume mounted on DLA2. The /FULL qualifier causes the file sizes and dates to be listed along with the names. 2.EXCHANGE> DIRECTORY MFA0:/VOLUME_FORMAT=DOS11 The command in this example lists all files on the DOS-11 magnetic tape mounted on MFA0. The magnetic tape is rewound before the files are listed. 2 DISMOUNT Releases a volume previously accessed by the EXCHANGE command MOUNT. Format DISMOUNT device-name[:] 3 Parameters device-name[:] Specifies the name of the device to be dismounted. You can specify a physical device name or a logical name assigned to a physical device name. If you omit a controller designation or a unit number, the defaults are controller A and unit 0, respectively. You can also specify the name of a virtual device. 3 Description The DISMOUNT command closes all connections that EXCHANGE maintains to the device. This command does not affect the state of the operating system mount; the device remains accessible to OpenVMS. If you do not use the DISMOUNT command, an implicit DISMOUNT is automatically executed when you exit EXCHANGE. The DISMOUNT command is valid only with foreign devices. 3 Qualifiers /MESSAGE /MESSAGE /NOMESSAGE Controls whether or not EXCHANGE displays a message that the volume was dismounted. The default is determined by the /MESSAGE qualifier on the EXCHANGE command when EXCHANGE was activated. 3 Example EXCHANGE> MOUNT/FOREIGN MTA0: EXCHANGE> COPY MTA0:AVERAGE.FOR/VOLUME_FORMAT=DOS11 * EXCHANGE> DISMOUNT MTA0: The first command in this example mounts the tape on the device MTA0. The second command in this example transfers a file from the magnetic tape to the current default directory. The last command releases EXCHANGE's access to the volume; however, the volume is still mounted on the operating system and is accessible to OpenVMS. 2 EXIT Terminates execution of EXCHANGE. Control is returned to the DCL command level. You can also use CTRL/Z to exit EXCHANGE. Format EXIT 2 HELP Displays information about EXCHANGE commands and qualifiers. Format HELP [command [qualifier [option [option]]]] 3 Parameters command Specifies the name of the EXCHANGE command that you want information about. If you omit the command, HELP displays general information listing all commands recognized by EXCHANGE. qualifier Gives the name of the qualifier to be explained. option Gives the name of the option to be explained. 3 Description For an overview of EXCHANGE and a listing of the EXCHANGE command names, enter the HELP command with no arguments. If you enter HELP and the name of an EXCHANGE command, HELP displays a description of the command followed by a list of related qualifiers. For information on any of the related qualifiers, enter the qualifier name at the prompt. You can also obtain information on any EXCHANGE command qualifier by entering HELP, the command, and the qualifier at the EXCHANGE prompt, as follows: EXCHANGE> HELP COPY/CONTIGUOUS For information on a qualifier with options, enter HELP, the command, the qualifier, and the option at the EXCHANGE prompt. If you specify an asterisk (*) in place of any keyword, the HELP command displays all information available at that level. If you specify an ellipsis ( . . . ) after any keyword, the HELP command displays all information relating to that keyword. You can specify percent signs and asterisks in the keyword as wildcard characters. 3 Example EXCHANGE> HELP COPY/VOLUME_FORMAT The command in this example displays the help that is available for the COPY qualifier /VOLUME_FORMAT. 2 INITIALIZE Formats and writes a label on a foreign mass storage volume. For directory-structured devices, the device directory is also initialized. Format INITIALIZE device-name [volume-label] INITIALIZE/CREATE file-name [volume-label] 3 Parameters device-name Specifies the name of the device on which the volume to be initialized is physically mounted. The device name can also refer to the name of a mounted virtual device to be reinitialized. file-name For INITIALIZE/CREATE, file-name refers to the name of a file to be created and initialized as a virtual device. volume-label Specifies the identification to be written onto the volume header for RT-11 volumes only. The volume label can contain up to a maximum of 12 alphanumeric characters. The default is OpenVMS Exchange. Use quotation marks to specify a volume label with lowercase letters. 3 Description The EXCHANGE command INITIALIZE erases all files from a volume. After initialization, the volume directory contains no files. DOS-11 magnetic tapes and RT-11 block-addressable devices can be initialized. The device must be mounted with the /FOREIGN qualifier. 3 Qualifiers /ALLOCATION /ALLOCATION=n Specifies the allocation of a new virtual device file in terms of 512-byte blocks. The allocation specified is the number you entered as n. If you do not specify the /ALLOCATION qualifier when you create a new virtual device file, the default allocation is 494 blocks, the size of a single-density diskette. The maximum allocation is 65,536 blocks. A virtual device file is usually the size of a standard device supported by both RT-11 and OpenVMS. These sizes are as follows: Device Blocks TU58 512 RX01 494 RX02 494 (single density) RX50 800 RX02 988 (double density) RX33 2400 RL02 20480 RK06 27126 RK07 53790 You can also use the /ALLOCATION qualifier to reduce the size of a physical device. For example, if you want to prepare an RL02 disk but have only an RK07 device available, you can initialize the RK07 to a volume of 20,480 blocks. When the RL02 is available, you can transfer the files to the RL02 knowing they will fit on the smaller device. /BADBLOCKS /BADBLOCKS[=RETAIN] Performs a bad block scan of the volume before initialization. A file named FILE.BAD is created on top of each bad block or group of bad blocks encountered on the device, preventing any future use of the bad areas. If a bad block is found in either the boot block or the volume directory, the volume is not usable and EXCHANGE displays an error message. If the bad block is in a directory segment other than the first, you might be able to use the volume by reinitializing it with a smaller number of segments (see the /SEGMENTS qualifier description). If you specify /BADBLOCKS=RETAIN, EXCHANGE uses the device's existing bad block information, instead of performing a bad block scan. Therefore, initializing takes less time. If you do not specify RETAIN, EXCHANGE writes a pattern on each block of the volume, then reads each block to verify that the block is usable. EXCHANGE prints a list of the bad blocks found on the device. RK06, RK07, and RL02 disk volumes support bad block replacement. Therefore, Digital recommends that you use the /REPLACE=RETAIN qualifier for these volumes. If you use the /BADBLOCKS qualifier with a volume initializied previously with the /REPLACE qualifier, EXCHANGE deletes the bad block replacement table and performs a new bad block scan. If you use /BADBLOCKS=RETAIN with such a volume, EXCHANGE uses the FILE.BAD files created during the volume initialization. /CREATE Specifies that a virtual device is to be created and initialized. The specification is a file name; if a file type is not given, EXCHANGE applies the default type of DSK. /DENSITY /DENSITY=density-value Specifies, for magnetic tape volumes, the density in bytes per inch (bpi) at which the tape is to be written. For magnetic tape volumes, the density value specified can be 800 or 1600, as long as the density is supported by the magnetic tape drive. If you do not specify a density value for a blank tape, the system uses a default of the lowest density supported by the tape drive. For the RX02 dual-density diskette drive, use the DCL command INITIALIZE/DENSITY=SINGLE or INITIALIZE/DENSITY=DOUBLE to reformat the diskettes to a different density; then use the EXCHANGE command INITIALIZE to create the RT-11 directory structure. NOTE Diskettes formatted in double density cannot be read or written by the console block storage device (an RX01 drive) of a VAX-11/780 until they have been reformatted in single density. /EXTRA_WORDS /EXTRA_WORDS=n Specifies, for RT-11 volumes, the number of extra words to add to each directory entry, in addition to the required seven words. The ability to increase the length of directory entries is useful for some RT-11 applications. Increasing the size of the directory entries reduces the number of entries that fit in each directory segment. /MESSAGE /MESSAGE /NOMESSAGE Controls whether or not EXCHANGE displays a message that the volume was initialized. The default is determined by the /MESSAGE qualifier entered with the EXCHANGE command when EXCHANGE was activated. /REPLACE /REPLACE=RETAIN Retains, when an RT-11 volume is initialized, the bad block replacement table and any existing FILE.BAD files. The RETAIN option is required; EXCHANGE cannot build a replacement table for a volume. The RT-11 system builds and uses the table based on specific hardware error conditions. The OpenVMS I/O system is different, and cannot be relied upon to generate exactly the same error conditions. Therefore, it is not possible for EXCHANGE to generate the same replacement table that would be generated by RT-11. If no replacement table is present, the qualifier /REPLACE=RETAIN is equivalent to /BADBLOCKS=RETAIN. /SEGMENTS /SEGMENTS=n Defines, for RT-11 volumes, the number of 2-block directory segments to allocate for the directory. The number of segments in the directory establishes the number of files that can be stored on a device. The system allows a maximum of 72 files per directory segment and 31 directory segments per device. The argument n represents the number of segments; the valid range for n is from 1 to 31 (decimal). The default values for n depend on the device type, as follows: Device Segments TU58 1 RX01 1 RX02 1 (single density) RX02 4 (double density) RX50 4 RX33 16 RL02 16 RK06 16 RK07 31 /VOLUME_FORMAT /VOLUME_FORMAT=option Defines the physical format of the volume to be processed. The EXCHANGE command INITIALIZE is not valid for Files-11 devices. 3 Examples 1.$ MOUNT/FOREIGN DLA2: %MOUNT-I-MOUNTED, mounted on DLA2 $ EXCHANGE EXCHANGE> INITIALIZE DLA2: %EXCHANGE-S-INITIALIZED, the RT-11 volume _DLA2: has been initialized The command in this example initializes the volume mounted on the RL02 drive DLA2. Since DLA2 is a block-addressable device mounted with the /FOREIGN qualifier, RT-11 is the default format. EXCHANGE physically scans all blocks of the volume, builds a bad block replacement table, and displays a message indicating that it failed to turn up any bad blocks. 2.EXCHANGE> INITIALIZE MTA0:/DENSITY=1600 The command in this example initializes the DOS-11 magnetic tape volume loaded on MTA0. The density is specified as 1600 bpi; the default would have been 800 bpi for an MT drive. 3.EXCHANGE> INITIALIZE/CREATE/ALLOCATION=1000 VIRTUAL %EXCHANGE-S-INITIALIZED, the RT-11 volume DRB0:[LOGIN]VIRTUAL.DSK has been initialized The command in this example creates a virtual device with an allocation of 1000 blocks in the directory [LOGIN] on DRB0. EXCHANGE applies the default file type DSK. 2 MOUNT Makes a foreign volume and the files or data it contains available for processing by EXCHANGE. The EXCHANGE command MOUNT enters the device into internal tables maintained by EXCHANGE. Format MOUNT device-name MOUNT/VIRTUAL device-name file-name 3 Parameters device-name Specifies the physical device name or logical name of the device on which the volume is to be mounted. For MOUNT/VIRTUAL, the device-name parameter supplies a name for the virtual device. file-name For MOUNT/VIRTUAL only, the file-name parameter gives the name of the file containing the image of the foreign volume. 3 Description The EXCHANGE command MOUNT enters the description of the foreign volume in internal tables maintained by EXCHANGE. This command is different from the DCL command MOUNT, which enters the device in tables maintained by the OpenVMS operating system. A virtual volume must be explicitly mounted with the MOUNT /VIRTUAL command. If an EXCHANGE command is given on an unmounted foreign volume, EXCHANGE attempts to execute an implied MOUNT/FOREIGN/WRITE- /NODATACHECK on the device. This feature enables EXCHANGE to operate in the single-command DCL mode. If a MOUNT/FOREIGN (either implied or explicit) command is given for a foreign device that has not been mounted on the OpenVMS system, EXCHANGE issues the equivalent of the DCL command MOUNT /FOREIGN and attempts to make the volume known to the operating system. Any volume mounted in this way remains mounted after EXCHANGE exits. When EXCHANGE issues the MOUNT/FOREIGN command, the system checks the following: o That the device has not been allocated to another user o That a volume is physically loaded on the specified device o For magnetic tapes, the volume accessibility field of the VOL1 label 3 Qualifiers /DATA_CHECK /DATA_CHECK[=(READ,WRITE)] /NODATA_CHECK Determines whether EXCHANGE performs a second operation after every I/O operation to verify that the data was correctly transferred. If you specify /DATA_CHECK=WRITE, after every write operation EXCHANGE rereads the data that was just written and compares it with the original data. If you specify /DATA_ CHECK=READ, EXCHANGE reads each block of data twice and verifies that both read operations received identical data. It is usually more efficient to use the /DATA_CHECK option on the DCL command MOUNT than to use the option on the EXCHANGE command MOUNT. If you mount a device with the DCL command MOUNT/FOREIGN /DATA_CHECK, OpenVMS can use features in the device hardware and device driver to perform the redundant I/O operations. The RX01 and RX02 diskette drives do not contain the necessary features for the operating system to perform data checking. If you use the DCL command MOUNT/DATA_CHECK with a diskette, the system is unable to perform data checking (no warning message is displayed). EXCHANGE is able to recognize, however, that a diskette was mounted with the data checking option; in this case, EXCHANGE performs the software data checking internally, even if you have not specified an explicit MOUNT/DATA_CHECK command. If you specify the /DATA_CHECK qualifier without an option, the default is /DATA_CHECK=WRITE. /FOREIGN Indicates that the volume is not in the standard format used by the OpenVMS operating system; that is, a magnetic tape volume is not in the standard ANSI format, or a disk volume is not in Files-11 format. The EXCHANGE command MOUNT mounts only foreign volumes. The /FOREIGN qualifier is the default. You must use the DCL command MOUNT to mount OpenVMS volumes. The default protection applied to foreign volumes is RWLP (Read, Write, Logical I/O, Physical I/O) for the system and owner. If you mount a volume currently in Files-11 format with the /FOREIGN qualifier, you must have the user privilege to override volume protection (VOLPRO), or your UIC must match the UIC on the volume. /MESSAGE /MESSAGE /NOMESSAGE Controls whether EXCHANGE displays a message indicating that the volume was mounted. The default is determined by the /MESSAGE qualifier specified with the EXCHANGE command when EXCHANGE was invoked. /VIRTUAL Mounts a Files-11 file as a virtual device. When you specify /VIRTUAL, the MOUNT command requires two parameters. The first parameter is a device name assigned as the name of the virtual device. The second parameter is the name of the Files-11 file that is the image of a foreign volume. /VOLUME_FORMAT /VOLUME_FORMAT=option Defines the physical format of the volume to be processed. /WRITE /WRITE /NOWRITE Controls whether the volume can be written. You can specify /NOWRITE to protect files by providing read-only access. Specifying /NOWRITE is equivalent to write-locking the device. The default is /WRITE. If /WRITE is specified (either explicitly or by default) and the volume itself is write-locked, EXCHANGE displays a message to inform you that the volume is write-locked. 3 Examples 1.EXCHANGE> MOUNT MT: %EXCHANGE-I-MOUNTED, MATH06 mounted on _MTA0: The command in this example requests that the magnetic tape loaded on the device MTA0 be mounted as a foreign volume. The tape label is displayed, since the tape has been previously initialized as an ANSI-labeled tape with the label MATH06. This tape cannot be accessed as a Files-11 tape; it should be reinitialized as a DOS-11 tape during the current EXCHANGE session. 2.EXCHANGE> MOUNT DMA1: %EXCHANGE-I-WRITELOCK, volume is write-locked %EXCHANGE-S-MOUNTED, volume DMA1: mounted The command in this example mounts the foreign volume that is loaded in the RK07 device DMA1, making the volume available for subsequent EXCHANGE commands. EXCHANGE recognizes that the volume itself is write-locked, and displays a message. 2 RENAME Changes the file specification of an existing file on an RT-11 volume. Format RENAME input-file-spec output-file-spec 3 Parameters input-file-spec Specifies the names of one or more files whose specifications are to be changed. You can use wildcard characters in the file name and file type specification; if you do, all files that satisfy the specified fields are renamed. output-file-spec Provides the new file specification to be applied to the input file. The RENAME command uses the file name and file type of the input file specification to provide defaults for nonspecified fields in the output file. You can specify an asterisk (*) in place of the file name or file type of the output file; the RENAME command uses the corresponding field in the input file specification to name the output file. Specifying wildcard characters in corresponding fields of the input and output file specifications results in multiple rename operations. You can omit the device name from the output specification. EXCHANGE uses the device name specified for the input, since it is not possible to rename a file from one device to another. 3 Qualifiers /LOG /LOG /NOLOG Controls whether the RENAME command displays the file specification of each file that it renames. The default is /NOLOG. /PROTECT /PROTECT /NOPROTECT Determines whether protection is set for an RT-11 output file. The default is /NOPROTECT. This qualifier is not valid for Files-11 or DOS-11 output files. Protection attributes for Files-11 output are taken from the current process default protection. EXCHANGE does not attempt to transfer protection attributes from the input file to the output file. Protection mechanisms of various operating systems do not readily translate to one another. The owner UIC of the output file is the UIC of the current process. /SYSTEM /SYSTEM /NOSYSTEM Controls whether the RENAME command renames files that have the file type SYS. These files are usually files necessary for the operation of an RT-11 system. Only RT-11 volumes handle SYS files in this manner. The default is /NOSYSTEM; the RENAME command does not rename an RT-11 file with the type SYS, whether it is matched by a wildcard specification or is named explicitly. EXCHANGE displays a message when it skips an SYS file during a rename operation. EXCHANGE handles files with the file type BAD in a similar manner; that is, the rename operation skips BAD files. However, EXCHANGE does not warn that BAD files are being skipped, and the /SYSTEM qualifier has no effect on BAD files. To rename a file with the type BAD, specify the file explicitly instead of using wildcards. /VOLUME_FORMAT /VOLUME_FORMAT=option Defines the physical format of the volume to be processed. EXCHANGE supports the RENAME command on RT-11 volumes only. 3 Examples 1.EXCHANGE> RENAME DMA0:AVERAG.OBJ MEAN The command in this example changes the file name of the file AVERAG.OBJ to MEAN.OBJ. 2.EXCHANGE> RENAME DLA2:*.TXT *.OLD The command in this example renames all files with the file type TXT to files with the file type OLD; the file names are not changed. 3.EXCHANGE> RENAME/LOG DMA0:DATA.* NEW %EXCHANGE-I-RENAMED, _DMA0:DATA.AAA renamed to _DMA0:NEW.AAA %EXCHANGE-I-RENAMED, _DMA0:DATA.BBB renamed to _DMA0:NEW.BBB %EXCHANGE-I-RENAMED, _DMA0:DATA.CCC renamed to _DMA0:NEW.CCC The command in this example illustrates wildcard characters in the input file names. The device DMA0 contains three files with the file name DATA; the result is the renaming of all three files as displayed by the /LOG qualifier. 2 SHOW Displays the devices currently mounted by EXCHANGE. Format SHOW 3 Example EXCHANGE> MOUNT DBA0: %EXCHANGE-I-VMSMOUNT, a "$ MOUNT /FOREIGN DBA0:" command was done by Exchange %EXCHANGE-S-MOUNTED, the RT-11 volume _DBA0: has been mounted EXCHANGE> MOUNT DLA2: %EXCHANGE-I-VMSMOUNT, a "$ MOUNT /FOREIGN DLA2:" command was done by Exchange %EXCHANGE-S-MOUNTED, the RT-11 volume _DLA2: has been mounted EXCHANGE> INITIALIZE/CREATE WRKD:[USER]VIRT.DSK %EXCHANGE-S-INITIALIZED, the RT-11 volume WRKD:[USER]VIRT.DSK;1 has been initialized EXCHANGE> MOUNT/VIRTUAL DISK: VIRT.DSK %EXCHANGE-S-MOUNTVER, the RT-11 volume DISK: has been mounted using the file WRKD:[USER]VIRT.DSK;1 EXCHANGE> SHOW Mounted volumes: volume format: RT-11 volume class: disk (virtual volume) virtual file name: WRKD:[USER]VIRT.DSK;1 volume size: 494 blocks _DLA2: volume format: RT-11 volume class: disk physical device name: _DLA2: volume size: 20480 blocks _DBA0: volume format: RT-11 volume class: disk physical device name: _DBA0: volume size: 65535 blocks EXCHANGE> The MOUNT commands in this example mount foreign devices on drives DBA0 and DLA2. The SHOW command displays all devices currently mounted by EXCHANGE. 2 TYPE Displays the contents of a file or group of files on the current output device. Format TYPE file-spec[, . . . ] 3 Parameters file-spec[, . . . ] Specifies the names of one or more input files to be copied. If you specify more than one input file, separate them with either commas or plus signs. You can specify standard OpenVMS wildcards in file names, both Files-11 and foreign. You can use wildcard directories with Files-11 and DOS-11 input. The syntax for the file names is dependent on the particular volume format option present or implied. 3 Qualifiers /LOG /LOG /NOLOG Controls whether TYPE displays the file specifications of each file displayed. If you specify /LOG, the TYPE command displays the following for each copy operation: o File specifications of the input and output files o Number of blocks or the number of records copied (depending on whether the file is copied on a block-by-block or record-by- record basis) /RECORD_FORMAT /RECORD_FORMAT=(option[, . . . ]) Defines the internal record structure of a file and other attributes of the records. /REWIND /REWIND /NOREWIND Controls whether the DOS-11 input magnetic tape reel logically rewinds to the beginning-of-tape mark before EXCHANGE searches for the file name given in the input specifier. Use this qualifier only for DOS-11 magnetic tape devices. The default is /NOREWIND; you should use /REWIND when you want TYPE to start searching for a file at the beginning of the magnetic tape rather than at the current position. /VOLUME_FORMAT /VOLUME_FORMAT=option Defines the physical format of the volume to be processed. The default format qualifier is dependent on the device type. 3 Example EXCHANGE> TYPE DYA0:BEAM.RAT/VOLUME_FORMAT=RT11/RECORD=STREAM The command in this example copies the RT-11 file to the current SYS$OUTPUT device. The two qualifiers are the defaults if DYA0 was mounted as a foreign volume. 2 /NETWORK Enables the operating system to transfer files to or from operating systems that do not support OpenVMS file organizations. The transfer occurs over a DECnet network communications link that connects OpenVMS systems and non OpenVMS operating system nodes. Using DECnet services, the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command can perform any of the following tasks: o Transfer files between an OpenVMS node and a non OpenVMS system node. o Transfer a group of input files to a group of output files. o Transfer files between two non OpenVMS nodes, provided those nodes share DECnet connections with the OpenVMS node that issues the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command. Format EXCHANGE/NETWORK input-filespec[,...] output-filespec 3 Parameters input-filespec[,...] Specifies the name of an existing file to be transferred. The asterisk (*) and the percent sign (%) wildcard characters are allowed. If you specify more than one file, separate the file specifications with commas (,). output-filespec Specifies the name of the output file into which the input is transferred. You must specify at least one field in the output file specification. If you omit the device or directory, your current default device and directory are used. The EXCHANGE/NETWORK command replaces any other missing fields (file name, file type, and version number) with the corresponding field of the input file specification. The EXCHANGE/NETWORK command creates a new output file for every input file that you specify. You can use the asterisk (*) wildcard character in place of the file name, the file type, or the version number. The EXCHANGE /NETWORK command uses the corresponding field in the related input file to name the output file. You can also use the asterisk (*) wildcard character in the output file specification to direct EXCHANGE/NETWORK to create more than one output file. For example: $ EXCHANGE/NETWORK A.A,B.B MYPC::*.C This EXCHANGE/NETWORK command creates the files A.C and B.C at the non OpenVMS target node MYPC. A more complete explanation of the asterisk (*) and the percent sign (%) wildcard characters and version numbers follows in the Description section. 3 Qualifiers /BACKUP Modifies the time value specified with the /BEFORE or the /SINCE qualifier. The /BACKUP qualifier selects files according to the dates of their most recent backups. This qualifier is incompatible with the /CREATED, /EXPIRED, and /MODIFIED qualifiers, which also allow you to select files according to time attributes. If you do not specify any of these four time qualifiers, the default is the /CREATED qualifier. /BEFORE /BEFORE[=time] Selects only those files dated prior to the specified time. You can specify time as absolute time, as a combination of absolute and delta times, or as one of the following keywords: BOOT, LOGIN, TODAY (default), TOMORROW, or YESTERDAY. Specify one of the following qualifiers with the /BEFORE qualifier to indicate the time attribute to be used as the basis for selection: /BACKUP, /CREATED (default), /EXPIRED, or /MODIFIED. For complete information about specifying time values, see the OpenVMS User's Manual or the topic SPECIFY Date_Time in online help. /BY_OWNER /BY_OWNER[=uic] Selects only those files whose owner user identification code (UIC) matches the specified owner UIC. The default UIC is that of the current process. Specify the UIC by using standard UIC format as described in the OpenVMS Guide to System Security. /CONFIRM /CONFIRM /NOCONFIRM (default) Controls whether a request is issued before each file transfer operation to confirm that the operation should be performed on that file. The following responses are valid: YES NO QUIT TRUE FALSE Ctrl/Z 1 0 ALL <Return> You can use any combination of uppercase and lowercase letters for word responses. Word responses can be abbreviated to one or more letters (for example, T, TR, or TRU for TRUE), but these abbreviations must be unique. Affirmative answers are YES, TRUE, and 1. Negative answers include: NO, FALSE, 0, and pressing the Return key. Entering QUIT or pressing Ctrl/Z indicates that you want to stop processing the command at that point. When you respond by entering ALL, the command continues to process, but no further prompts are given. If you type a response other than one of those in the list, DCL issues an error message and redisplays the prompt. /CREATED /CREATED (default) Modifies the time value specified with the /BEFORE or the /SINCE qualifier. The /CREATED qualifier selects files based on their dates of creation. This qualifier is incompatible with the /BACKUP, /EXPIRED, and /MODIFIED qualifiers, which also allow you to select files according to time attributes. If you do not specify any of these four time qualifiers, the default is the /CREATED qualifier. /EXCLUDE /EXCLUDE=(filespec[,...]) Excludes the specified files from the file transfer operation. You can include a directory but not a device in the file specification. The asterisk (*) and the percent sign (%) wildcard characters are allowed in the file specification. However, you cannot use relative version numbers to exclude a specific version. If you specify only one file, you can omit the parentheses. /EXPIRED Modifies the time value specified with the /BEFORE or the /SINCE qualifier. The /EXPIRED qualifier selects files according to their expiration dates. (The expiration date is set with the SET FILE/EXPIRATION_DATE command.) The /EXPIRED qualifier is incompatible with the /BACKUP, /CREATED, and /MODIFIED qualifiers, which also allow you to select files according to time attributes. If you do not specify any of these four time qualifiers, the default is the /CREATED qualifier. /FDL /FDL=fdl-filespec Specifies that the output file characteristics are described in the File Definition Language (FDL) file. Use this qualifier when you require special output file characteristics. For more information about FDL files, see the OpenVMS Record Management Utilities Reference Manual. Use of the /FDL qualifier implies that the transfer mode is block by block. However, the transfer mode you specify with the /TRANSFER_MODE qualifier prevails. /LOG /LOG /NOLOG (default) Controls whether the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command displays the file specifications of each file copied. When you use the /LOG qualifier, the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command displays the following for each copy operation: o The file specifications of the input and output files o The number of blocks or the number of records copied (depending on whether the file is copied on a block-by-block or record-by-record basis) /MODIFIED Modifies the time value specified with the /BEFORE or the /SINCE qualifier. The /MODIFIED qualifier selects files according to the date on which they were last modified. This time qualifier is incompatible with the /BACKUP, /CREATED, and /EXPIRED qualifiers, which also allow you to select files according to time attributes. If you do not specify any of these four time qualifiers, the default is the /CREATED qualifier. /SINCE /SINCE[=time] Selects only those files dated after the specified time. You can specify time as absolute time, as a combination of absolute and delta times, or as one of the following keywords: BOOT, LOGIN, TODAY (default), TOMORROW, or YESTERDAY. Specify one of the following time qualifiers with the /SINCE qualifier to indicate the time attribute to be used as the basis for selection: /BACKUP, /CREATED (default), /EXPIRED, or /MODIFIED. For complete information about specifying time values, see the OpenVMS User's Manual or the topic SPECIFY Date_Time in online help. /TRANSFER_MODE /TRANSFER_MODE=option Specifies the I/O method to be used in the transfer. This qualifier is useful for all file formats. You can specify any one of the following options: Option Function AUTOMATIC Allows the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command to determine the appropriate transfer mode. This is the default transfer mode. BLOCK Opens both the input and output files for block I/O and transfers the files block by block. CONVERT[=option[,...]]Reads records from the input file, packs them into blocks, and writes them to the output file in block mode. The options listed in the following table determine what additional information is inserted during the transfer. RECORD Opens both the input and output files for record I/O and transfers the files record by record. The target system must support record operations, and the input file must be record oriented. The following four options are available with the CONVERT transfer mode to control the insertion of special characters in the records: Option Function CARRIAGE_CONTROL Any carriage control information in the input file is interpreted, is expanded into actual characters, and is included with each record. COUNTED The length of each record, in bytes, is included at the beginning of the record. The length includes all FIXED_CONTROL, CARRIAGE_CONTROL, and RECORD_SEPARATOR information in each record. FIXED_CONTROL All variable length with fixed control record (VFC) information is written to the output file as part of the data. This information follows the record length information, if the COUNTED option was specified. RECORD_SEPARATOR= A 1- or 2-byte record separator is inserted separator between each record. Record separator characters are the last characters in the record. The three choices for separator characters are as follows: o CR: Specifies carriage return only. o LF: Specifies line feed only. o CRLF: Specifies carriage return and line feed. 3 Examples 1.$ EXCHANGE/NETWORK VMS_FILE.DAT KUDOS::FOREIGN_SYS.DAT In this example, the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command transfers the file VMS_FILE.DAT located in the current default device and directory to the file FOREIGN_SYS.DAT on the non OpenVMS node KUDOS. Because the /TRANSFER_MODE qualifier was not explicitly specified, the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command automatically determines whether the transfer method should be block or record I/O. 2.$ EXCHANGE/NETWORK/TRANSFER_MODE=BLOCK - _$ KUDOS::FOREIGN_SYS.DAT VMS_FILE.DAT In this example, the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command transfers the file FOREIGN_SYS.DAT from the non OpenVMS node KUDOS to the file VMS_FILE.DAT in the current default device and directory. Block I/O is specified for the transfer mode. 3.$ EXCHANGE/NETWORK/FDL=VMS_FILE_DEFINITION.FDL - _$ KUDOS::REMOTE_FILE.TXT VMS_FILE.DAT In this example, the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command transfers the file REMOTE_FILE.TXT on node KUDOS to the file VMS_FILE.DAT. The file attributes for the output file VMS_FILE.DAT are obtained from the File Definition Language (FDL) source file VMS_FILE_DEFINITION.FDL. For more information about creating FDL files, see the OpenVMS Record Management Utilities Reference Manual. Because the qualifier /FDL is specified and the /TRANSFER_MODE qualifier is omitted, the transfer mode uses block I/O, by default. 4.$ EXCHANGE/NETWORK - _$ /TRANSFER_MODE=CONVERT=(CARRIAGE_CONTROL,COUNTED, - _$ RECORD_SEPARATOR=CRLF,FIXED_CONTROL) - _$ PRINT_FILE.TXT KUDOS::* In this example, the EXCHANGE/NETWORK command transfers the file PRINT_FILE.TXT from the current default device and directory to the file PRINT_FILE.TXT on the non OpenVMS node KUDOS. The use of the CONVERT option with the /TRANSFER_MODE qualifier forces the input file to be read in record by record, modified as specified by the CONVERT options that follow, and written to the output file block by block. As many records as will fit are packed into the output blocks. The CONVERT option CARRIAGE_CONTROL specifies that carriage control information is converted to ASCII characters and is inserted before the data or is appended to the record, depending on whether prefix control or postfix control, or both, are used. The CONVERT option FIXED_CONTROL specifies that any fixed control information be translated to ASCII characters and be inserted at the beginning of the record. The CONVERT option RECORD_SEPARATOR=CRLF appends the two specified characters, carriage return and line feed, to the end of the record. The CONVERT option COUNTED specifies that the total length of the record must be counted (once the impact of all the previous convert options have been added), and the result is to be inserted at the beginning of the record, in the first 2 bytes.